Validation of a modified McGill Pain Questionnaire for orthodontic patients

Laura Iwasaki, Larissa E. Freytag, Charles A. Schumacher, Mary P. Walker, Karen B. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To assess better and more efficiently the aspects of pain experienced by adolescent orthodontic patients, the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF) was modified (MMPQSF) and validated. Materials and Methods: Internal and external expert panels developed a MMPQ-SF with 15 descriptors and 4-point Likert severity scales (MMPQ-SF15). Seventy-five subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment gave informed consent. Sixty-one subjects completed the MMPQ-SF15, a visual analogue scale (VAS), and the present pain index (PPI) 24 hours after an orthodontic visit. Respondents were grouped by gender and treatment stage: initial (15 female, 7 male), middle (10 female, 7 male), and end (16 female, 6 male). MMPQ-SF, VAS, and PPI scores were compared by Spearman correlation analysis. Underlying constructs were explored by factor analyses. Construct validity of the MMPQ-SF was tested by analysis of variance. Results: MMPQ-SF15 and VAS (r = 0.78, r2 s = 0.61, P < .0001), MMPQ-SF15 and PPI (r = 0.84, r2 s = 0.71, P < .0001), and VAS and PPI (r = 0.70, r2 s = 0.48, P < .0001) were correlated positively and significantly. A two-factor solution (localized and generalized/emotional pain; Kaiser- Meyer-Olkin = 0.88) showed that 11 descriptors (MMPQ-SF11) accounted for 64% of response variability. Generalized/emotional pain values were significantly higher during the initial stage of treatment compared to the middle (P = .011) and end stages (P = .014). Conclusions: MMPQ-SF, particularly MMPQ-SF11, demonstrated utility in assessment of localized and generalized/emotional aspects of pain in adolescent orthodontic patients and correlated well with VAS and PPI. Future application of the MMPQ-SF11 to measure orthodontic pain more specifically could lead to more appropriate management of this important facet of therapy. (Angle Orthod. 2013;83:906-912.)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)906-912
Number of pages7
JournalAngle Orthodontist
Volume83
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Pain Measurement
Orthodontics
Pain
1-methyl-2-(2-(methylthio)-2-piperidinovinyl)quinolinium
Therapeutics
Informed Consent
Visual Analog Scale
Statistical Factor Analysis
Analysis of Variance

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Human
  • Orthodontic pain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics

Cite this

Iwasaki, L., Freytag, L. E., Schumacher, C. A., Walker, M. P., & Williams, K. B. (2013). Validation of a modified McGill Pain Questionnaire for orthodontic patients. Angle Orthodontist, 83(5), 906-912. https://doi.org/10.2319/110812-859.1

Validation of a modified McGill Pain Questionnaire for orthodontic patients. / Iwasaki, Laura; Freytag, Larissa E.; Schumacher, Charles A.; Walker, Mary P.; Williams, Karen B.

In: Angle Orthodontist, Vol. 83, No. 5, 01.09.2013, p. 906-912.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Iwasaki, L, Freytag, LE, Schumacher, CA, Walker, MP & Williams, KB 2013, 'Validation of a modified McGill Pain Questionnaire for orthodontic patients', Angle Orthodontist, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 906-912. https://doi.org/10.2319/110812-859.1
Iwasaki, Laura ; Freytag, Larissa E. ; Schumacher, Charles A. ; Walker, Mary P. ; Williams, Karen B. / Validation of a modified McGill Pain Questionnaire for orthodontic patients. In: Angle Orthodontist. 2013 ; Vol. 83, No. 5. pp. 906-912.
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abstract = "Objective: To assess better and more efficiently the aspects of pain experienced by adolescent orthodontic patients, the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF) was modified (MMPQSF) and validated. Materials and Methods: Internal and external expert panels developed a MMPQ-SF with 15 descriptors and 4-point Likert severity scales (MMPQ-SF15). Seventy-five subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment gave informed consent. Sixty-one subjects completed the MMPQ-SF15, a visual analogue scale (VAS), and the present pain index (PPI) 24 hours after an orthodontic visit. Respondents were grouped by gender and treatment stage: initial (15 female, 7 male), middle (10 female, 7 male), and end (16 female, 6 male). MMPQ-SF, VAS, and PPI scores were compared by Spearman correlation analysis. Underlying constructs were explored by factor analyses. Construct validity of the MMPQ-SF was tested by analysis of variance. Results: MMPQ-SF15 and VAS (r = 0.78, r2 s = 0.61, P < .0001), MMPQ-SF15 and PPI (r = 0.84, r2 s = 0.71, P < .0001), and VAS and PPI (r = 0.70, r2 s = 0.48, P < .0001) were correlated positively and significantly. A two-factor solution (localized and generalized/emotional pain; Kaiser- Meyer-Olkin = 0.88) showed that 11 descriptors (MMPQ-SF11) accounted for 64{\%} of response variability. Generalized/emotional pain values were significantly higher during the initial stage of treatment compared to the middle (P = .011) and end stages (P = .014). Conclusions: MMPQ-SF, particularly MMPQ-SF11, demonstrated utility in assessment of localized and generalized/emotional aspects of pain in adolescent orthodontic patients and correlated well with VAS and PPI. Future application of the MMPQ-SF11 to measure orthodontic pain more specifically could lead to more appropriate management of this important facet of therapy. (Angle Orthod. 2013;83:906-912.)",
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