The purpose of this study was to develop an open-chest animal preparation to validate the accuracy of a two-dimensional Doppler echocardiographic method for estimating pressure drops across discrete stenotic obstructions. Six mongrel dogs underwent median sternotomy and catheters were placed in the right ventricle, distal main pulmonary artery, and aorta of each. A 1/8 inch umbilical tape was sewn to the posterior rim of the pulmonary artery just above the anulus and was progressively tightened to vary the degree of stenosis. Ultrasound and Doppler studies were performed with a 2.5 MHz phased-array unit with capabilities for pulsed or continuous-mode Doppler and real-time imaging. Peak systolic main pulmonary arterial flow velocities were recorded by Doppler echocardiography within the jet distal to the band from an oblique parasternal short-axis echocardiographic view and corrected for angle of incidence between the direction of Doppler sampling and the presumed direction of flow. Doppler velocities were converted to gradients with a simplification of the Bernoulli equation (gradient = 4 x maximal Doppler flow velocity2). Maximal Doppler-determined systolic pulmonary arterial velocities showed a good linear correlation with the 63 measured pressure drops (r = .95, SEE ± 36.3 cm/sec). An excellent correlation was also found between Doppler-calculated and actual pressure gradients (r = .96, SEE ± 7.26 mm Hg). Our results suggest that this Doppler method for measuring gradients across discrete stenotic obstructions may be quite accurate in clinical applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)