Background: Wearable sensors could be a simple way to quantify and characterize mobility in patients with hematologic cancer scheduled to receive autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (autoHSCT) and how they may be related to common treatment-related symptoms and side effects of induction chemotherapy. Objective: We aimed to conduct a cross-sectional study comparing mobility in patients scheduled to receive autoHSCT with that in healthy, age-matched adult controls and determine the relationships between patient mobility and chemotherapy-related symptoms. Methods: Patients scheduled to receive autoHSCT (78/156, 50%) and controls (78/156, 50%) completed the prescribed performance tests using wearable inertial sensors to quantify mobility including turning (turn duration and number of steps), gait (gait speed, stride time, stride time variability, double support time, coronal trunk range of motion, heel strike angle, and distance traveled), and balance (coronal sway, coronal range, coronal velocity, coronal centroidal frequency, sagittal sway, sagittal range, sagittal velocity, and sagittal centroidal frequency). Patients completed the validated patient-reported questionnaires to assess symptoms common to chemotherapy: chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group–Neurotoxicity subscale), nausea and pain (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire), fatigue (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Fatigue Short Form 8a), vertigo (Vertigo Symptom Scale–short form), and depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression). Paired, 2-sided t tests were used to compare mobility between patients and controls. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate associations between patient mobility and symptoms. Results: Patients aged 60.3 (SD 10.3) years had significantly worse turning (turn duration; P<.001), gait (gait speed, stride time, stride time variability, double support time, heel strike angle, stride length, and distance traveled; all P<.001), and balance (coronal sway; P<.001, range; P<.001, velocity; P=.02, and frequency; P=.02; and sagittal range; P=.008) than controls. In patients, high nausea was associated with worse stride time variability (ß=.001; P=.005) and heel strike angle (ß=−.088; P=.02). Pain was associated with worse gait speed (ß=−.003; P=.003), stride time variability (ß=.012; P=.02), stride length (ß=−.002; P=.004), and distance traveled (ß=−.786; P=.005). Nausea and pain explained 17% to 33% and 14% to 36% of gait variance measured in patients, respectively. Conclusions: Patients scheduled to receive autoHSCT demonstrated worse mobility in multiple turning, gait, and balance domains compared with controls, potentially related in part to nausea and pain. Wearable inertial sensors used in the clinic setting could provide granular information about mobility before further treatment, which may in turn benefit from rehabilitation or symptom management. Future longitudinal studies are needed to better understand temporal changes in mobility and symptoms across the treatment trajectory to optimally time, design, and implement strategies, to preserve functioning in patients with hematologic cancer in the long term.
- autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant
- chemotherapy-related symptoms
- induction chemotherapy
- wearable inertial sensor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research