Use of Lipids in Adult Patients Requiring Parenteral Nutrition in the Home Setting

Manpreet S. Mundi, Stanislaw Klek, Robert G. Martindale

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


It is estimated that over 25,000 Americans receive home parenteral nutrition (HPN), mostly because of intestinal failure (IF). Although there is significant variability in the fluid and energy needs of patients receiving HPN, intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) are an essential part of the macronutrient composition, serving as an excellent source of non-protein energy, as well as supplying essential fatty acids. However, the long-term use of ILEs in particular may be associated with some detrimental health effects, such as intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although there is lack of unifying diagnosis, IFALD can present as cholestasis, steatosis, or fibrosis, with a prevalence that ranges between 5% and 43%. The development of IFALD tends to be multifactorial. Risk factors of IFALD can include those related to IF, inflammation/infection, and long-term parenteral nutrition. Some studies have shown a link between development of IFALD and ILE dose, especially if the dose is >1 g/kg/d, with high ω-6:ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio and phytosterol content being theorized as some contributing factors. Thus, efforts have been made to use alternative oils (olive oil, medium-chain triglycerides, and fish oil) to reduce the soybean-oil content of ILE, which tends to be high in ω-6 PUFA and phytosterols. Although additional long-term clinical data are emerging, this strategy, as reviewed in the current manuscript, has shown to provide some benefit in both prevention and treatment of IFALD and other sequelae of HPN.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S39-S44
JournalJournal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Issue numberS1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020


  • fatty acid
  • fish oil
  • home parenteral nutrition
  • intestinal failure
  • intestinal failure associated liver disease
  • intravenous lipid emulsion
  • omega-3
  • phytosterol
  • soybean oil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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