Use, microbiological effectiveness and health impact of a household water filter intervention in rural Rwanda-A matched cohort study

Miles A. Kirby, Corey Nagel, Ghislaine Rosa, Marie Mediatrice Umupfasoni, Laurien Iyakaremye, Evan A. Thomas, Thomas F. Clasen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Unsafe drinking water is a substantial health risk contributing to child diarrhoea. We investigated impacts of a program that provided a water filter to households in rural Rwandan villages. We assessed drinking water quality and reported diarrhoea 12-24 months after intervention delivery among 269 households in the poorest tertile with a child under 5 from 9 intervention villages and 9 matched control villages. We also documented filter coverage and use. In Round 1 (12-18 months after delivery), 97.4% of intervention households reported receiving the filter, 84.5% were working, and 86.0% of working filters contained water. Sensors confirmed half of households with working filters filled them at least once every other day on average. Coverage and usage was similar in Round 2 (19-24 months after delivery). The odds of detecting faecal indicator bacteria in drinking water were 78% lower in the intervention arm than the control arm (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.10-0.39, p. <. 0.001). The intervention arm also had 50% lower odds of reported diarrhoea among children <5 than the control arm (OR = 0.50, 95% CrI 0.23-0.90, p = 0.03). The protective effect of the filter is also suggested by reduced odds of reported diarrhoea-related visits to community health workers or clinics, although these did not reach statistical significance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Feb 28 2017

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Rwanda
Diarrhea
Cohort Studies
Drinking Water
Water
Health
Odds Ratio
Water Quality
Bacteria

Keywords

  • Faecal contamination
  • Household water treatment
  • Rwanda
  • Water quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Use, microbiological effectiveness and health impact of a household water filter intervention in rural Rwanda-A matched cohort study. / Kirby, Miles A.; Nagel, Corey; Rosa, Ghislaine; Umupfasoni, Marie Mediatrice; Iyakaremye, Laurien; Thomas, Evan A.; Clasen, Thomas F.

In: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 28.02.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kirby, Miles A. ; Nagel, Corey ; Rosa, Ghislaine ; Umupfasoni, Marie Mediatrice ; Iyakaremye, Laurien ; Thomas, Evan A. ; Clasen, Thomas F. / Use, microbiological effectiveness and health impact of a household water filter intervention in rural Rwanda-A matched cohort study. In: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2017.
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