Advances in ureteroscope and working instrument designs now allow the treatment of a variety of upper urinary tract disorders in a minimally invasive fashion. This field has benefited from the close cooperation between endourologists, engineers, and manufacturers. Continued cooperation should result in even further improvements in ureteroscopic instrumentation. This article also presents the development of flexible and rigid ureteroscopes and working instruments. Knowledge of these features can assist the urologist in choosing the most appropriate tool for different ureteroscopic tasks.
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