Unilateral versus bilateral cerebral perfusion for acute type a aortic dissection

Ourania Preventza, Katherine H. Simpson, Denton A. Cooley, Lorraine Cornwell, Faisal G. Bakaeen, Shuab Omer, Victor Rodriguez, Kim I. De La Cruz, Todd Rosengart, Joseph S. Coselli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is standard treatment for complex aortic pathology and includes both unilateral (u-ACP) and bilateral (b-ACP) techniques. Focusing on proximal acute aortic dissection, we investigated the clinical effect of u-ACP versus b-ACP. Methods From January 2005 to May 2013, 157 consecutive patients presented with acute type A aortic dissection. Antegrade cerebral perfusion was used in 153 patients (97.4%). Ninety patients (58.8%) received u-ACP, and 63 (41.2%) received b-ACP. No retrograde cerebral perfusion was used. The target systemic hypothermia temperature during ACP was 22° to 24°C. The mean ACP, cardiopulmonary bypass, and cardiac ischemia times were 34.6 ± 18.0, 125.6 ± 48.0, and 92.6 ± 34.1 minutes, respectively. Results The p values from logistic regression models indicated that in both groups combined, the ACP, cardiopulmonary bypass, and cardiac ischemia times predicted hospital mortality (p = 0.035, p = 0.0033, and p = 0.035, respectively) but not stroke. The operative mortality was 13.3% (n = 12) with u-ACP and 12.7% (n = 8) with b-ACP (p = 0.91). Of the survivors, 13 of 88 u-ACP patients (14.8%) and 8 of 62 b-ACP patients (12.9%) had a postoperative stroke (p = 0.75). A circulatory arrest time of >30 minutes was associated with stroke (p = 0.031). Temporary neurologic dysfunction was present in 10 u-ACP (11.4%) and 5 b-ACP (8.2%) patients (p = 0.53). Postoperative renal failure occurred in 10 u-ACP (11.4%) and 10 b-ACP patients (16.1%) (p = 0.40). Antegrade stent delivery in the descending thoracic aorta did not affect the ACP, cardiac ischemia, circulatory arrest, or cardiopulmonary bypass times. Conclusions As one of the largest single-center studies of the efficacy of u-ACP and b-ACP in patients with type A aortic dissection, operative mortality, stroke, temporary neurologic dysfunction, and renal failure rates were similar in both. In this intrinsically complex disease, survival is the most important outcome; u-ACP may provide cardiac surgeons with valuable technical simplicity during challenging procedures, and b-ACP may be justified for circulatory arrest times of more than 30 minutes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)80-87
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Volume99
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Preventza, O., Simpson, K. H., Cooley, D. A., Cornwell, L., Bakaeen, F. G., Omer, S., Rodriguez, V., De La Cruz, K. I., Rosengart, T., & Coselli, J. S. (2015). Unilateral versus bilateral cerebral perfusion for acute type a aortic dissection. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 99(1), 80-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.07.049