Understanding Attitudes Toward Use of Medication in Substance Abuse Treatment: A Multilevel Approach

John Fitzgerald, Dennis McCarty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Individual and organizational variables influence attitudes toward use of naltrexone, methadone, and buprenorphine for the treatment of alcohol and drug disorders. Previous research has not considered both sets of influences simultaneously. Hierarchical linear modeling tested the contribution of individual and organizational variables with data from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network treatment unit and workforce surveys (n = 2,269 staff nested within 247 treatment units). Individual-level variables consistently had more influence on attitudes, but a unique blend of variables existed for each medication. One predictor, support for psychiatric medications, influenced attitudes across all medications. Staff attitudes toward addiction medications varied significantly between treatment units. Implications for increasing the appropriate use of addiction medications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)74-84
Number of pages11
JournalPsychological Services
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2009


  • addiction medications
  • evidence-based practices
  • substance abuse treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology


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