Apart from the common causes of thyrotoxicosis, such as Graves' disease and functioning nodular goiters, there are more than 20 less common causes of elevated free thyroid hormones that produce the symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis. This review describes these rarer conditions and includes 14 illustrative patients. Thyrotropin and free thyroxine should be measured and, when the latter is normal, the free triiodothyronine level should be obtained. Measurement of the uptake of 123I is recommended for most patients.
- Graves' disease
- Thyroid hormones
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging