Ultrasound and the Evaluation of Pediatric Thyroid Malignancy: Current Recommendations for Diagnosis and Follow-up

Sarah Ogle, Alexa Merz, Ralitza Parina, Mahmoud Alsayed, Kresimira Milas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Scopus citations


Ultrasound (US) plays a critical role in the evaluation, treatment, screening, and surveillance of thyroid malignancy in pediatric patients. This review aims to summarize recent advances in this topic. Improvements in imaging technology have amplified the advantage of US and US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for thyroid nodule evaluation, cancer diagnosis, and surgical planning. Ultrasound has a definitive screening role for early cancer detection in high-risk patients, including those with a history of radiation exposure from childhood treatments, environmental radiation disasters, or hereditary/familial cancer syndromes. Finally, US is a key component of lifelong surveillance for recurrence among pediatric thyroid cancer survivors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2311-2324
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018
Externally publishedYes



  • American Thyroid Association guidelines
  • head and neck
  • lymph node surveillance
  • pediatrics
  • thyroid cancer
  • thyroid/parathyroid
  • thyroidectomy
  • ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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