Type e botulism

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

There are seven known serotypes of botulism, designated A through G; almost all human cases of botulism are caused by types A, B, and E. Botulism type E is the predominant serotype causing disease associated with native Arctic foods. In the circumpolar regions of the world, the coastal soils are rich in botulism type E, and consumption of fish and marine animals in these areas are the sources of clusters of botulism. Unlike spores of type A and B, botulism type E can withstand freezing down to 3.5°C. Alaskan native fermentation of fish heads, fish eggs, and beaver tail allow proper anaerobic conditions for botulinum toxin to be elaborated from Clostridium botulinum. The consumption of whale meat, "muktuk" has also been associated with outbreaks of botulism in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic. Elsewhere in the Arctic regions, type E botulism has been associated with Norwegian "rakfisk" prepared by a process similar to fermented Alaskan foods. Outbreaks in Egypt with the salted gray mullet "faseikh", in Israel and New York linked to salted uneviscerated whitefish "kapchunka", in Iran from eating "ashbal" an uncooked salmon, and in Japan with "izushi" a traditional fermented fish preserved in rice have occurred. Importation of vacuum-packed whitefish from Alaska and Canada has also been associated with sporadic cases of botulism type E in Europe. In March 2010, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the heptavalent antitoxin (H-BAT) for use in the USA, under an Investigational New Drug program, as the preferred treatment for food-borne botulism, including type E, which had not been covered by the bivalent antitoxin, the prior approved antitoxin product in the USA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)880-895
Number of pages16
JournalClinical Toxicology
Volume48
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2010

Fingerprint

Botulism
Antitoxins
Fish
Investigational Drugs
Disease control
Fishes
Clostridium
Botulinum Toxins
Meats
Salmonidae
Freezing
Fermentation
Animals
Food
Vacuum
Disease Outbreaks
Soils
Arctic Regions
Clostridium botulinum
Whales

Keywords

  • CNS/Psychological
  • Muscle
  • Other

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Type e botulism. / Horowitz, B (Zane).

In: Clinical Toxicology, Vol. 48, No. 9, 11.2010, p. 880-895.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Horowitz, B (Zane). / Type e botulism. In: Clinical Toxicology. 2010 ; Vol. 48, No. 9. pp. 880-895.
@article{02dab66911624a0aaf6d0cc51ecfe625,
title = "Type e botulism",
abstract = "There are seven known serotypes of botulism, designated A through G; almost all human cases of botulism are caused by types A, B, and E. Botulism type E is the predominant serotype causing disease associated with native Arctic foods. In the circumpolar regions of the world, the coastal soils are rich in botulism type E, and consumption of fish and marine animals in these areas are the sources of clusters of botulism. Unlike spores of type A and B, botulism type E can withstand freezing down to 3.5°C. Alaskan native fermentation of fish heads, fish eggs, and beaver tail allow proper anaerobic conditions for botulinum toxin to be elaborated from Clostridium botulinum. The consumption of whale meat, {"}muktuk{"} has also been associated with outbreaks of botulism in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic. Elsewhere in the Arctic regions, type E botulism has been associated with Norwegian {"}rakfisk{"} prepared by a process similar to fermented Alaskan foods. Outbreaks in Egypt with the salted gray mullet {"}faseikh{"}, in Israel and New York linked to salted uneviscerated whitefish {"}kapchunka{"}, in Iran from eating {"}ashbal{"} an uncooked salmon, and in Japan with {"}izushi{"} a traditional fermented fish preserved in rice have occurred. Importation of vacuum-packed whitefish from Alaska and Canada has also been associated with sporadic cases of botulism type E in Europe. In March 2010, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the heptavalent antitoxin (H-BAT) for use in the USA, under an Investigational New Drug program, as the preferred treatment for food-borne botulism, including type E, which had not been covered by the bivalent antitoxin, the prior approved antitoxin product in the USA.",
keywords = "CNS/Psychological, Muscle, Other",
author = "Horowitz, {B (Zane)}",
year = "2010",
month = "11",
doi = "10.3109/15563650.2010.526943",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "48",
pages = "880--895",
journal = "Clinical Toxicology",
issn = "1556-3650",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Type e botulism

AU - Horowitz, B (Zane)

PY - 2010/11

Y1 - 2010/11

N2 - There are seven known serotypes of botulism, designated A through G; almost all human cases of botulism are caused by types A, B, and E. Botulism type E is the predominant serotype causing disease associated with native Arctic foods. In the circumpolar regions of the world, the coastal soils are rich in botulism type E, and consumption of fish and marine animals in these areas are the sources of clusters of botulism. Unlike spores of type A and B, botulism type E can withstand freezing down to 3.5°C. Alaskan native fermentation of fish heads, fish eggs, and beaver tail allow proper anaerobic conditions for botulinum toxin to be elaborated from Clostridium botulinum. The consumption of whale meat, "muktuk" has also been associated with outbreaks of botulism in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic. Elsewhere in the Arctic regions, type E botulism has been associated with Norwegian "rakfisk" prepared by a process similar to fermented Alaskan foods. Outbreaks in Egypt with the salted gray mullet "faseikh", in Israel and New York linked to salted uneviscerated whitefish "kapchunka", in Iran from eating "ashbal" an uncooked salmon, and in Japan with "izushi" a traditional fermented fish preserved in rice have occurred. Importation of vacuum-packed whitefish from Alaska and Canada has also been associated with sporadic cases of botulism type E in Europe. In March 2010, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the heptavalent antitoxin (H-BAT) for use in the USA, under an Investigational New Drug program, as the preferred treatment for food-borne botulism, including type E, which had not been covered by the bivalent antitoxin, the prior approved antitoxin product in the USA.

AB - There are seven known serotypes of botulism, designated A through G; almost all human cases of botulism are caused by types A, B, and E. Botulism type E is the predominant serotype causing disease associated with native Arctic foods. In the circumpolar regions of the world, the coastal soils are rich in botulism type E, and consumption of fish and marine animals in these areas are the sources of clusters of botulism. Unlike spores of type A and B, botulism type E can withstand freezing down to 3.5°C. Alaskan native fermentation of fish heads, fish eggs, and beaver tail allow proper anaerobic conditions for botulinum toxin to be elaborated from Clostridium botulinum. The consumption of whale meat, "muktuk" has also been associated with outbreaks of botulism in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic. Elsewhere in the Arctic regions, type E botulism has been associated with Norwegian "rakfisk" prepared by a process similar to fermented Alaskan foods. Outbreaks in Egypt with the salted gray mullet "faseikh", in Israel and New York linked to salted uneviscerated whitefish "kapchunka", in Iran from eating "ashbal" an uncooked salmon, and in Japan with "izushi" a traditional fermented fish preserved in rice have occurred. Importation of vacuum-packed whitefish from Alaska and Canada has also been associated with sporadic cases of botulism type E in Europe. In March 2010, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the heptavalent antitoxin (H-BAT) for use in the USA, under an Investigational New Drug program, as the preferred treatment for food-borne botulism, including type E, which had not been covered by the bivalent antitoxin, the prior approved antitoxin product in the USA.

KW - CNS/Psychological

KW - Muscle

KW - Other

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78650478153&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78650478153&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3109/15563650.2010.526943

DO - 10.3109/15563650.2010.526943

M3 - Article

C2 - 21171846

AN - SCOPUS:78650478153

VL - 48

SP - 880

EP - 895

JO - Clinical Toxicology

JF - Clinical Toxicology

SN - 1556-3650

IS - 9

ER -