In this study, we reviewed M-mode and two-dimensional (2DE) echocardiographic observations in 13 patients with pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and in six patients with truncus arteriosus in order to attempt to identify echocardiographic features distinguishing these two abnormalities in which no anatomic connection exists between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. M-mode features compatible with the diagnosis of pulmonary atresia with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) were a small but identifiable space anterior to the aorta and/or immobile pulmonic valve echoes appearing to open during diastole rather than systole. By 2DE, the proximal and distal segments of the right ventricular outflow tract could be imaged and the length of the atretic segment estimated. In truncus arteriosus, no outflow tract of the right ventricle could be identified by 2DE or M-mode echocardiography, and the origin of the pulmonary artery from the truncus could be imaged directly in four patients with type I and in one patient with type II truncus. Abnormalities of the truncal valve were also present and were imaged by 2DE in three of our five patients. Our study identified specific echocardiographic criteria for diagnosing truncus arteriosus and pulmonary atresia with VSD and for differentiation between them.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine