Tuberous sclerosis-associated renal cell carcinoma: A clinicopathologic study of 57 separate carcinomas in 18 patients

Juan Guo, Maria S. Tretiakova, Megan L. Troxell, Adeboye O. Osunkoya, Oluwole Fadare, Ankur R. Sangoi, Steven S. Shen, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Rohit Mehra, Amer Heider, John P. Higgins, Lara R. Harik, Xavier Leroy, Anthony J. Gill, Kiril Trpkov, Steven C. Campbell, Christopher Przybycin, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Jesse K. McKenney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations

Abstract

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic tumors involving multiple organ systems. Whereas renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is common in TSC, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rarely reported. Fifty-seven RCCs from 13 female and 5 male TSC patients were reviewed. Age at surgery ranged from 7 to 65 years (mean: 42 y). Nine patients (50%) had multiple synchronous and/or metachronous RCCs (range of 2 to 20 RCCs) and 5 had bilateral RCCs (28%). Seventeen patients (94%) had histologically confirmed concurrent renal AMLs, including 15 with multiple AMLs (88%) and 9 (50%) with AMLs with epithelial cysts. None of the 15 patients with available clinical follow-up information had evidence of distant metastatic disease from 6 to 198 months after their initial surgery (mean: 52 mo). The 57 RCCs exhibited 3 major distinct morphologies: (1) 17 RCCs (30%) had features similar to tumors previously described as "renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor" or "RCC with smooth muscle stroma"; (2) 34 RCCs (59%) showed features similar to chromophobe RCC; and (3) 6 RCCs (11%) showed a granular eosinophilic-macrocystic morphology. Distinct histologic changes were also commonly present in the background kidney parenchyma and included cysts or renal tubules lined by epithelial cells with prominent eosinophilic cytoplasm, nucleomegaly, and nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, all RCCs tested showed strong nuclear reactivity for PAX8 and HMB45 negativity. Compared with sporadic RCCs, TSC-associated RCCs have unique clinicopathologic features including female predominance, younger age at diagnosis, multiplicity, association with AMLs, 3 recurring histologic patterns, and an indolent clinical course. Awareness of the morphologic and clinicopathologic spectrum of RCC in this setting will allow surgical pathologists to better recognize clinically unsuspected TSC patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1457-1467
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgical Pathology
Volume38
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Keywords

  • Angiomyolipoma
  • Ca9
  • Cd117
  • Ck7
  • HMB45
  • PAX8
  • Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Tuberous sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Surgery
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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