HIV infection is associated with a number of opportunistic infections and malignancies frequently involving the lymph nodes. Lymphadenopathy may occur at any stage of HIV infection. We aimed to determine the utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in evaluating the causes of lymphadenopathy in HIV-infected individuals. Three hundred HIV-infected individuals with lymphadenopathy were included in the study. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed on peripheral or deep-seated lymph nodes. The material was used for cytological examination using MayGrunwaldGiemsa and haematoxylin and eosin staining. Special stains such as modified ZiehlNeelsen staining for acid-fast bacilli and periodic acid-Schiff staining for fungi were also performed. The mean age of the study group was 35.0 ± 8.0 y (range 13-74 y). The median CD4 count was 152 cells/μl. Out of the 300 FNA reports, acid-fast bacteria were reported in 130 and cytological findings indicating mycobacterial infection in a further 43 patients. Cryptococcosis was reported in 4 individuals, histoplasmosis in 2 and aspergillosis in 1. Reactive hyperplasia was seen in 89 individuals. Lymphoma was noted in 7 individuals and suppurative inflammation in 5. In conclusion, tuberculosis is the predominant cause of lymphadenitis in HIV-infected individuals in India, especially in those with low CD4 cell counts.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases