Background Hysterosalpingram (HSG) evaluation of tubal patency is typically performed in the follicular phase, but data to support this timing are lacking. Purpose To determine whether menstrual cycle phase or hormonal treatments affect observation of tubal patency during HSG. Material and Methods Ten participants underwent repeated HSG examinations: during the follicular and luteal phase of a natural menstrual cycle; 30 days following continuous administration of a combined oral contraceptive (COC); and 30 days after an intramuscular injection of depo medroxyprogesterone (DMPA) acetate. Participants with tubal blockade following DMPA had a fifth HSG 30 days following a second course of COCs. The primary outcome was tubal patency. Results All 10 participants demonstrated bilateral tubal patency (BTP) on at least one HSG examination during the study. One participant showed bilateral functional occlusion (FO) during the follicular phase examination, but BTP with the luteal phase, COC cycle, and DMPA exams. One participant with BTP discontinued participation and nine completed the COC HSG exam with BTP in seven, and one each with bilateral or unilateral FO. Seven participants completed the DMPA HSG with BTP in six and unilateral FO in one; BTP was seen in the final HSG after restarting the COC. Conclusion This pilot study supports the luteal phase of natural cycles as the optimum time for evaluation of tubal patency. The occurrence of functional occlusion of the fallopian tube on HSG examination performed during the follicular phase and following contraceptive steroid treatment supports a role of hormonal action on the utero-tubal junction.
- Fallopian tubes
- menstrual cycle
- oral contraception
- tubal sterilization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging