Treosulfan, fludarabine, and 2-Gy total body irradiation followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia

Boglarka Gyurkocza, Jonathan Gutman, Eneida R. Nemecek, Merav Bar, Filippo Milano, Aravind Ramakrishnan, Bart Scott, Min Fang, Brent Wood, John M. Pagel, Joachim Baumgart, Colleen Delaney, Richard T. Maziarz, Brenda M. Sandmaier, Elihu H. Estey, Frederick R. Appelbaum, Barry E. Storer, Hans Joachim Deeg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers curative therapy for many patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, post-HCT relapse remains a major problem, particularly in patients with high-risk cytogenetics. In this prospective phase II trial, we assessed the efficacy and toxicity of treosulfan, fludarabine, and 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) as conditioning for allogeneic HCT in patients with MDS or AML. Ninety-six patients with MDS (n=36: 15 refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, 10 refractory anemia with excess blasts type 1, 10 refractory anemia with excess blasts type 2, 1 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia type 1) or AML (n=60: 35 first complete remission [CR], 18second CR, 3 advanced CR, 4 refractory relapse) were enrolled; median age was 51 (range, 1 to 60) years. Twelve patients had undergone a prior HCT with high-intensity conditioning. Patients received 14g/m2/day treosulfan i.v. on days-6 to-4, 30mg/m2/day fludarabine i.v. on days-6 to-2, and 2 Gy TBI on day 0, followed by infusion of hematopoietic cells from related (n=27) or unrelated (n=69) donors. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus and methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 30months, the 2-year overall survival (OS), relapse incidence, and nonrelapse mortality were 73%, 27%, and 8%, respectively. The incidences of grades II to IV (III to IV) acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were 59% (10%) and 47%, respectively. Two-year OS was not significantly different between MDS patients with poor-risk and good/intermediate-risk cytogenetics (69% and 85%, respectively) or between AML patients with unfavorable and favorable/intermediate-risk cytogenetics (64% and 76%, respectively). In AML patients, minimal residual disease (MRD; n=10) at the time of HCT predicted higher relapse incidence (70% versus 18%) and lower OS (41% versus 79%) at 2years, when compared with patients without MRD. In conclusion, treosulfan, fludarabine, and low-dose TBI provided effective conditioning for allogeneic HCT in patients with MDS or AML and resulted in low relapse incidence, regardless of cytogenetic risk. In patients with AML, MRD at the time of HCT remained a risk factor for post-HCT relapse.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)549-555
Number of pages7
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Volume20
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2014

Keywords

  • AML
  • Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
  • MDS
  • Total body irradiation
  • Treosulfan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Transplantation

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Treosulfan, fludarabine, and 2-Gy total body irradiation followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Gyurkocza, B., Gutman, J., Nemecek, E. R., Bar, M., Milano, F., Ramakrishnan, A., Scott, B., Fang, M., Wood, B., Pagel, J. M., Baumgart, J., Delaney, C., Maziarz, R. T., Sandmaier, B. M., Estey, E. H., Appelbaum, F. R., Storer, B. E., & Deeg, H. J. (2014). Treosulfan, fludarabine, and 2-Gy total body irradiation followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 20(4), 549-555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.01.009