Abstract: Joint surface incongruence resulting from osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) alters the articular physiologic congruence, increasing the contact stress on adjacent joint surfaces and accelerating wear and the cascade of joint degeneration. Accordingly, the restoration of articular surface integrity is of major importance, especially in young adults where, in lesions left untreated or following simple fragment excision, early osteoarthritis can be anticipated. Therefore, the treatment algorithm in unstable knee OCD of the young adult foresees surgical options to restore the articular surface. Several procedures have been proposed, including refixation of the detached fragment bone marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft implantation, fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation, and cell-based or cell-free regenerative techniques. The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence for these surgical strategies, reporting their results and limitations. The overall evidence documents positive results for each of the assorted surgical procedures applied to treat unstable OCD, thus indicating support for their selected use to treat osteochondral defects paying particular attention to their specific indications for the lesion characteristics. The fixation of a good quality fragment should be pursued as a first option, while unfixable small lesions may benefit from autografts. For large lesions, available cell-based or cell-free osteochondral scaffold are a feasible solution but with limitation in terms of regenerated tissue quality. In this light, fresh allografts may offer articular surface restoration with viable physiologic osteochondral tissue providing a predictably successful outcome, and therefore they may currently represent the most suitable option to treat unstable irreparable OCD lesion in young adults. Level of evidence: V.
- Osteochondritis dissecans
- Surgical treatment
- Young adult
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine