Purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine if the addition of etoposide, thioguanine, and dexamethasone to daunorubicin and cytarabine (five-drug regimen) during induction would improve remission induction rates and survival of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when compared with the standard regimen of cytarabine and daunorubicin (7 + 3) and whether allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or intensive chemotherapy consolidation with or without maintenance would give a superior outcome. Patients and Methods: A total of 591 assessable children with AML entered Childrens Cancer Group (CCG) trial 213 between January 1986 and February 1989. The status of patients as of September 1, 1992 forms the basis of this report. The results were compared with previous AML studies. Results: The projected survival rate of all patients at 5 years is 39% (event-free survival [EFS] rate, 31%), which is superior to that of the prior CCG study (P = .01). The induction rate was 79% for 7 + 3 and 76% for the five-drug regimen (not significant). Comparisons of BMT to chemotherapy favored BMT, but these differences do not always reach statistical significance (eg, 5- year disease-free survival [DFS] rate, 46% v 38% [P = .06] with donor available and 54% v 37% [P = .002] if treated according to protocol intent). No benefit for maintenance therapy was found and, in some comparisons, it was inferior to discontinuation of therapy (5-year survival rate, 46% v 68%, P < .01). Conclusion: The 5-year EFS rate of patients with AML is 31% and has improved. The five-drug induction regimen is no better than standard induction, BMT appears superior to chemotherapy, and maintenance therapy was not beneficial.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research