Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening adverse effect of transfusion that is occurring at increasing incidence in the United States and that, in the past 2 reporting years, has been the leading cause of transfusion-related death. TRALI and acute lung injury (ALI) share a common clinical definition except that TRALI is temporally and mechanistically related to the transfusion of blood/blood components. In prospective studies, 2 patient groups, 1 requiring cardiac surgery and 1 with hematologic malignancies and undergoing induction chemotherapy, were predisposed. Two different etiologies have been proposed. The first is a single antibody-mediated event involving the transfusion of anti-HLA class I and class II or antigranulocyte antibodies into patients whose leukocytes express the cognate antigens. The second is a 2-event model: the first event is the clinical condition of the patient resulting in pulmonary endothelial activation and neutrophil sequestration, and the second event is the transfusion of a biologic response modifier (including lipids or antibodies) that activates these adherent polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), resulting in endothelial damage, capillary leak, and TRALI. These hypotheses are discussed, as are the animal models and human studies that provide the experimental and clinical relevance. Prevention, treatment, and a proposed definition of TBALI, especially in the context of ALI, are also examined.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology