The ongoing search for specialty substances with unique physical and chemical properties has motivated the development of numerous types of metal oxide nanomaterials, but concerns remain regarding biological effects of particles that are comparable in size to ultrafine air pollution (d < 100 nm). Much of the nanoparticle toxicological research has been on inhalation and intact-skin dermal exposures. Lung epithelial cells exposed to oxide nanoparticles show diverse responses, most notably upregulation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. This chapter addresses potential etiologies, mechanisms, and methodologies for investigating potential unforeseen toxicities of nanoparticles that are likely to occur in skin as nanoproducts become more and more available.
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