Towards practical unsupervised anomaly detection on retinal images

Khalil Ouardini, Huijuan Yang, Balagopal Unnikrishnan, Manon Romain, Camille Garcin, Houssam Zenati, J. Peter Campbell, Michael F. Chiang, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Vijay Chandrasekhar, Pavitra Krishnaswamy, Chuan Sheng Foo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Supervised deep learning approaches provide state-of-the-art performance on medical image classification tasks for disease screening. However, these methods require large labeled datasets that involve resource-intensive expert annotation. Further, disease screening applications have low prevalence of abnormal samples; this class imbalance makes the task more akin to anomaly detection. While the machine learning community has proposed unsupervised deep learning methods for anomaly detection, they have yet to be characterized on medical images where normal vs. anomaly distinctions may be more subtle and variable. In this work, we characterize existing unsupervised anomaly detection methods on retinal fundus images, and find that they require significant fine tuning and offer unsatisfactory performance. We thus propose an efficient and effective transfer-learning based approach for unsupervised anomaly detection. Our method employs a deep convolutional neural network trained on ImageNet as a feature extractor, and subsequently feeds the learned feature representations into an existing unsupervised anomaly detection method. We show that our approach significantly outperforms baselines on two natural image datasets and two retinal fundus image datasets, all with minimal fine-tuning. We further show the ability to leverage very small numbers of labelled anomalies to improve performance. Our work establishes a strong unsupervised baseline for image-based anomaly detection, alongside a flexible and scalable approach for screening applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDomain Adaptation and Representation Transfer and Medical Image Learning with Less Labels and Imperfect Data First MICCAI Workshop, DART 2019 and First International Workshop, MIL3ID 2019 Shenzhen, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2019 Shenzhen, 2019 Proceedings
EditorsQian Wang, Fausto Milletari, Nicola Rieke, Hien V. Nguyen, Badri Roysam, Shadi Albarqouni, M. Jorge Cardoso, Ziyue Xu, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Vishal Patel, Steve Jiang, Kevin Zhou, Khoa Luu, Ngan Le
PublisherSpringer
Pages225-234
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9783030333904
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019
Event1st MICCAI Workshop on Domain Adaptation and Representation Transfer, DART 2019, and the 1st International Workshop on Medical Image Learning with Less Labels and Imperfect Data, MIL3ID 2019, held in conjunction with 22nd International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer- Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2019 - Shenzhen, China
Duration: Oct 13 2019Oct 17 2019

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume11795 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Conference

Conference1st MICCAI Workshop on Domain Adaptation and Representation Transfer, DART 2019, and the 1st International Workshop on Medical Image Learning with Less Labels and Imperfect Data, MIL3ID 2019, held in conjunction with 22nd International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer- Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2019
Country/TerritoryChina
CityShenzhen
Period10/13/1910/17/19

Keywords

  • Anomaly detection
  • Retinal images
  • Transfer learning
  • Unsupervised deep learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)

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