Toward fully three-dimensional-printed miniaturized confocal imager

Janset Savaş, Ramin Khayatzadeh, Fehmi Çivitçi, Yiǧit Daǧhan Gökdel, Onur Ferhanoǧlu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


We present a disposable miniaturized confocal imager, consisting mostly of three-dimensional (3-D)-printed components. A 3-D printed laser scanner with 10×10 mm2 frame size is employed for Lissajous scan, with 180 and 315 Hz frequencies in orthogonal directions corresponding to ±8 deg and ±4 deg optical scan angles, respectively. The actuation is done electromagnetically via a magnet attached to the scanner and an external coil. A miniaturized lens with 6-mm clear aperture and 10-mm focal length is 3-D printed and postprocessed to obtain desired (≤λ/5 surface roughness) performance. All components are press-fitted into a 3-D-printed housing having 17 mm width, which is comparable to many of the MEMS-based scanning imagers. Finally, line-scan from a resolution target and two-dimensional scanning in the sample location were demonstrated with the integrated device.0

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number041402
JournalOptical Engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2018


  • confocal endoscopy
  • imaging systems
  • lenses
  • optical fabrication
  • scanners

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Engineering(all)


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