Toll-like receptors and ischemic brain injury

Raffaella Gesuete, Steven Kohama, Mary Stenzel-Poore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are master regulators of innate immunity and play an integral role in the activation of inflammatory response during infections. In addition, TLRs influence the body's response to numerous forms of injury. Recent data have shown that TLRs play a modulating role in ischemic brain damage after stroke. Interestingly, their stimulation before ischemia induces a tolerant state that is neuroprotective. This phenomenon, referred to as TLR preconditioning, is the result of the reprogramming of TLR response to ischemic injury. This review addresses the role of TLRs in brain ischemia and the activation of endogenous neuroprotective pathways in the setting of preconditioning. We highlight the protective role of interferon-related response and the potential site of action for TLR preconditioning involving the blood-brain barrier. Pharmacologic modulation of TLR activation to promote protection against stroke is a promising approach for the development of prophylactic and immediate therapies targeting ischemic brain injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)378-386
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Volume73
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Toll-Like Receptors
Brain Injuries
Stroke
Wounds and Injuries
Brain Ischemia
Blood-Brain Barrier
Innate Immunity
Interferons
Action Potentials
Ischemia
Brain
Infection

Keywords

  • Cerebral ischemia
  • Ischemic brain injury
  • Preconditioning
  • Stroke
  • Toll-like receptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Toll-like receptors and ischemic brain injury. / Gesuete, Raffaella; Kohama, Steven; Stenzel-Poore, Mary.

In: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, Vol. 73, No. 5, 2014, p. 378-386.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gesuete, Raffaella ; Kohama, Steven ; Stenzel-Poore, Mary. / Toll-like receptors and ischemic brain injury. In: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology. 2014 ; Vol. 73, No. 5. pp. 378-386.
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