Three-year follow-up of older schizophrenics: Extrapyramidal syndromes, psychiatric symptoms, and ventricular brain ratio

William F. Hoffman, Linda Ballard, Erick H. Turner, Daniel E. Casey

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Longitudinal evaluation of psychiatric patients often yields information that cross-sectional study does not. We previously examined 31 older (age > 55) chronic schizophrenics for prevalence of extrapyramidal side effects, severity of psychiatric symptoms, and ventricular brain ratio (VBR). We reexamined 22 of these patients after 2-4 years. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) and drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) were common (mean prevalences were 52% and 62%, respectively) and often occurred together (38%). The overall prevalences of the disorders did not change significantly with time, although there was some individual fluctuation in diagnosis. Severity of TD was constant, but severity of DIP decreased, probably because neuroleptic doses were significantly decreased. Magnitude of DIP was positively correlated with VBR and severity of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The correlation of DIP and negative symptoms occurred primarily because of the similarity between masked facies and blunted affect. VBR did not change over the follow-up period. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia were prevalent, moderately severe, and quite stable over time in this cohort. Positive symptoms were less severe but highly variable between examinations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)913-926
Number of pages14
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 1 1991


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry

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