Purpose: To evaluate the utility of visualizing preprocedural MR images in 3-dimensional (3D) space using augmented reality (AR) before transarterial embolization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a preclinical model. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats with diethylnitrosamine-induced HCCs > 5 mm treated with embolization were included in a prospective study. In 12 rats, 3D AR visualization of preprocedural MR images was performed before embolization. Procedural metrics including catheterization time and radiation exposure were compared vs a prospective cohort of 16 rats in which embolization was performed without AR. An additional cohort of 15 retrospective cases was identified and combined with the prospective control cohort (n = 31) to improve statistical power. Results: A 37% reduction in fluoroscopy time, from 11.7 min to 7.4 minutes, was observed with AR when compared prospectively, which did not reach statistical significance (P = .12); however, when compared with combined prospective and retrospective controls, the reduction in fluoroscopy time from 14.1 min to 7.4 minutes (48%) was significant (P = .01). A 27% reduction in total catheterization time, from 42.7 minutes to 31.0 minutes, was also observed with AR when compared prospectively, which did not reach statistical significance (P = .11). No significant differences were seen in dose–area product or air kerma prospectively. Conclusions: Three-dimensional AR visualization of preprocedural imaging may aid in the reduction of procedural metrics in a preclinical model of transarterial embolization. These data support the need for further studies to evaluate the potential of AR in endovascular oncologic interventions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine