The current study examined emotional reflex reactions of participants threatened with respiratory distress caused by imposing a resistive load at inspiration. Cues signaling threat (breathing MAY be difficult) and safe periods were intermixed while startle reflexes, heart rate, skin conductance, and facial EMG activity were measured. Compared to safe cues, threat cues elicited significant startle potentiation, enhanced skin conductance, heightened corrugator EMG changes, and pronounced "fear bradycardia" consistent with defensive activation in the context of threatened respiratory dysfunction. These data indicate that anticipating respiratory resistance activates defensive responding, which may mediate symptomatology in patients with panic and other anxiety disorders.
- Respiratory distress
- Threat versus safe
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Physiology (medical)