The St. Hans Rating Scale for extrapyramidal syndromes: Reliability and validity

J. Gerlach, S. Korsgaard, P. Clemmensen, A. M. Lund Lauersen, G. Magelund, U. Noring, U. J. Povlsen, P. Bech, Daniel Casey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

103 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The St. Hans Rating Scale (SHRS) is a multidimensional rating scale for the evaluation of neuroleptic-induced hyperkinesia, parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia. This scale and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) were tested by 7 raters (2 experienced, 2 less experienced and 3 totally inexperienced) in 30 psychiatric patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD). The test was performed 3 times in the same patients: 1) live evaluation during a video recording, 2) evaluation 2 weeks later from the videotape, and 3) evaluation after another 2 weeks from the same videotape. The intrarater reliability was high in the experienced group (0.91-0.96 for SHRS hyperkinesia scale, 0.80-0.84 for AIMS, and 0.82-0.97 for SHRS total parkinsonism). No significant changes occurred from live to video evaluation. The interrater reliability coefficient for the experienced group was also high: 0.89-0.95 for the SHRS hyperkinesia scale, 0.76-0.85 for the AIMS scale and 0.95-0.98 for the SHRS parkinsonism scale. The less experienced and the inexperienced raters had coefficients for intra- and interrater reliability that were 0.10 and 0.20 lower, respectively. The SHRS parkinsonism scale had a high construct validity, as determined by the homogeneity coefficients of Cronbach (0.82) and Loevinger (0.43). The corresponding coefficients for the hyperkinesia scales were low, in agreement with the individual distribution of TD (only about 50% present extremity dyskinesia and less than 25% facial, head and trunk dyskinesia, independent of the severity of the syndrome). Finally, convergent validity was found between the SHRS hyperkinesia scale and AIMS and divergent validity between all of ther other scales. It is concluded that the SHRS represents an easily completed, reliable, valid and sensitive rating scale for extrapyramidal symptoms that can be used with and without videotapes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-252
Number of pages9
JournalActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Volume87
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1993

Fingerprint

Hyperkinesis
Reproducibility of Results
Parkinsonian Disorders
Videotape Recording
Dyskinesias
Video Recording
Psychomotor Agitation
Dystonia
Antipsychotic Agents
Psychiatry
Extremities
Head
Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale

Keywords

  • Extrapyramidal sympton
  • Parkinsonism
  • Rating scale
  • Reliability
  • Tardive dyskinesia
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Gerlach, J., Korsgaard, S., Clemmensen, P., Lund Lauersen, A. M., Magelund, G., Noring, U., ... Casey, D. (1993). The St. Hans Rating Scale for extrapyramidal syndromes: Reliability and validity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87(4), 244-252.

The St. Hans Rating Scale for extrapyramidal syndromes : Reliability and validity. / Gerlach, J.; Korsgaard, S.; Clemmensen, P.; Lund Lauersen, A. M.; Magelund, G.; Noring, U.; Povlsen, U. J.; Bech, P.; Casey, Daniel.

In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 87, No. 4, 1993, p. 244-252.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gerlach, J, Korsgaard, S, Clemmensen, P, Lund Lauersen, AM, Magelund, G, Noring, U, Povlsen, UJ, Bech, P & Casey, D 1993, 'The St. Hans Rating Scale for extrapyramidal syndromes: Reliability and validity', Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 244-252.
Gerlach J, Korsgaard S, Clemmensen P, Lund Lauersen AM, Magelund G, Noring U et al. The St. Hans Rating Scale for extrapyramidal syndromes: Reliability and validity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1993;87(4):244-252.
Gerlach, J. ; Korsgaard, S. ; Clemmensen, P. ; Lund Lauersen, A. M. ; Magelund, G. ; Noring, U. ; Povlsen, U. J. ; Bech, P. ; Casey, Daniel. / The St. Hans Rating Scale for extrapyramidal syndromes : Reliability and validity. In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1993 ; Vol. 87, No. 4. pp. 244-252.
@article{b4d1e31226d04d2c8c37747721ffc6d0,
title = "The St. Hans Rating Scale for extrapyramidal syndromes: Reliability and validity",
abstract = "The St. Hans Rating Scale (SHRS) is a multidimensional rating scale for the evaluation of neuroleptic-induced hyperkinesia, parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia. This scale and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) were tested by 7 raters (2 experienced, 2 less experienced and 3 totally inexperienced) in 30 psychiatric patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD). The test was performed 3 times in the same patients: 1) live evaluation during a video recording, 2) evaluation 2 weeks later from the videotape, and 3) evaluation after another 2 weeks from the same videotape. The intrarater reliability was high in the experienced group (0.91-0.96 for SHRS hyperkinesia scale, 0.80-0.84 for AIMS, and 0.82-0.97 for SHRS total parkinsonism). No significant changes occurred from live to video evaluation. The interrater reliability coefficient for the experienced group was also high: 0.89-0.95 for the SHRS hyperkinesia scale, 0.76-0.85 for the AIMS scale and 0.95-0.98 for the SHRS parkinsonism scale. The less experienced and the inexperienced raters had coefficients for intra- and interrater reliability that were 0.10 and 0.20 lower, respectively. The SHRS parkinsonism scale had a high construct validity, as determined by the homogeneity coefficients of Cronbach (0.82) and Loevinger (0.43). The corresponding coefficients for the hyperkinesia scales were low, in agreement with the individual distribution of TD (only about 50{\%} present extremity dyskinesia and less than 25{\%} facial, head and trunk dyskinesia, independent of the severity of the syndrome). Finally, convergent validity was found between the SHRS hyperkinesia scale and AIMS and divergent validity between all of ther other scales. It is concluded that the SHRS represents an easily completed, reliable, valid and sensitive rating scale for extrapyramidal symptoms that can be used with and without videotapes.",
keywords = "Extrapyramidal sympton, Parkinsonism, Rating scale, Reliability, Tardive dyskinesia, Validity",
author = "J. Gerlach and S. Korsgaard and P. Clemmensen and {Lund Lauersen}, {A. M.} and G. Magelund and U. Noring and Povlsen, {U. J.} and P. Bech and Daniel Casey",
year = "1993",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "87",
pages = "244--252",
journal = "Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica",
issn = "0001-690X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The St. Hans Rating Scale for extrapyramidal syndromes

T2 - Reliability and validity

AU - Gerlach, J.

AU - Korsgaard, S.

AU - Clemmensen, P.

AU - Lund Lauersen, A. M.

AU - Magelund, G.

AU - Noring, U.

AU - Povlsen, U. J.

AU - Bech, P.

AU - Casey, Daniel

PY - 1993

Y1 - 1993

N2 - The St. Hans Rating Scale (SHRS) is a multidimensional rating scale for the evaluation of neuroleptic-induced hyperkinesia, parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia. This scale and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) were tested by 7 raters (2 experienced, 2 less experienced and 3 totally inexperienced) in 30 psychiatric patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD). The test was performed 3 times in the same patients: 1) live evaluation during a video recording, 2) evaluation 2 weeks later from the videotape, and 3) evaluation after another 2 weeks from the same videotape. The intrarater reliability was high in the experienced group (0.91-0.96 for SHRS hyperkinesia scale, 0.80-0.84 for AIMS, and 0.82-0.97 for SHRS total parkinsonism). No significant changes occurred from live to video evaluation. The interrater reliability coefficient for the experienced group was also high: 0.89-0.95 for the SHRS hyperkinesia scale, 0.76-0.85 for the AIMS scale and 0.95-0.98 for the SHRS parkinsonism scale. The less experienced and the inexperienced raters had coefficients for intra- and interrater reliability that were 0.10 and 0.20 lower, respectively. The SHRS parkinsonism scale had a high construct validity, as determined by the homogeneity coefficients of Cronbach (0.82) and Loevinger (0.43). The corresponding coefficients for the hyperkinesia scales were low, in agreement with the individual distribution of TD (only about 50% present extremity dyskinesia and less than 25% facial, head and trunk dyskinesia, independent of the severity of the syndrome). Finally, convergent validity was found between the SHRS hyperkinesia scale and AIMS and divergent validity between all of ther other scales. It is concluded that the SHRS represents an easily completed, reliable, valid and sensitive rating scale for extrapyramidal symptoms that can be used with and without videotapes.

AB - The St. Hans Rating Scale (SHRS) is a multidimensional rating scale for the evaluation of neuroleptic-induced hyperkinesia, parkinsonism, akathisia and dystonia. This scale and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) were tested by 7 raters (2 experienced, 2 less experienced and 3 totally inexperienced) in 30 psychiatric patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD). The test was performed 3 times in the same patients: 1) live evaluation during a video recording, 2) evaluation 2 weeks later from the videotape, and 3) evaluation after another 2 weeks from the same videotape. The intrarater reliability was high in the experienced group (0.91-0.96 for SHRS hyperkinesia scale, 0.80-0.84 for AIMS, and 0.82-0.97 for SHRS total parkinsonism). No significant changes occurred from live to video evaluation. The interrater reliability coefficient for the experienced group was also high: 0.89-0.95 for the SHRS hyperkinesia scale, 0.76-0.85 for the AIMS scale and 0.95-0.98 for the SHRS parkinsonism scale. The less experienced and the inexperienced raters had coefficients for intra- and interrater reliability that were 0.10 and 0.20 lower, respectively. The SHRS parkinsonism scale had a high construct validity, as determined by the homogeneity coefficients of Cronbach (0.82) and Loevinger (0.43). The corresponding coefficients for the hyperkinesia scales were low, in agreement with the individual distribution of TD (only about 50% present extremity dyskinesia and less than 25% facial, head and trunk dyskinesia, independent of the severity of the syndrome). Finally, convergent validity was found between the SHRS hyperkinesia scale and AIMS and divergent validity between all of ther other scales. It is concluded that the SHRS represents an easily completed, reliable, valid and sensitive rating scale for extrapyramidal symptoms that can be used with and without videotapes.

KW - Extrapyramidal sympton

KW - Parkinsonism

KW - Rating scale

KW - Reliability

KW - Tardive dyskinesia

KW - Validity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027534918&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027534918&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 8098178

AN - SCOPUS:0027534918

VL - 87

SP - 244

EP - 252

JO - Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

JF - Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

SN - 0001-690X

IS - 4

ER -