The role of facial gender confirmation surgery in the treatment of gender dysphoria

Nick Esmonde, Alireza Najafian, Amy Penkin, Jens Berli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The population of transgender patients seeking gender confirmation surgery for gender dysphoria is increasing in the United States. Facial gender confirmation surgery (FGCS) is one of the treatment modalities patients require and is often a combination of soft tissue and cranio-maxilla-facial procedures. Despite evidence of the efficacy of FGCS, there remains some extant controversies to address, such as reimbursement for these procedures, categorization of aesthetic versus functional surgery, and evaluation of outcomes. This review provides a discussion of these topics, as well as the historical and psychosocial issues specific to transgender patients that surgeons should know when providing FGCS. We provide practice pearls for providing affirming transgender healthcare, illustrative patient clinical vignettes, and a discussion of the Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health to help guide surgeons who are interested in providing FGCS to transgender patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1387-1392
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Volume30
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Transgender Persons
Therapeutics
Maxilla
Standard of Care
Esthetics
Gender Dysphoria
Delivery of Health Care
Health
Population

Keywords

  • Facial feminization
  • Facial surgery
  • Gender dysphoria
  • Transgender

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

Cite this

The role of facial gender confirmation surgery in the treatment of gender dysphoria. / Esmonde, Nick; Najafian, Alireza; Penkin, Amy; Berli, Jens.

In: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, Vol. 30, No. 5, 01.01.2019, p. 1387-1392.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Esmonde, Nick ; Najafian, Alireza ; Penkin, Amy ; Berli, Jens. / The role of facial gender confirmation surgery in the treatment of gender dysphoria. In: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2019 ; Vol. 30, No. 5. pp. 1387-1392.
@article{4ed9a8d023fa4736bc3da84ec6d50a8a,
title = "The role of facial gender confirmation surgery in the treatment of gender dysphoria",
abstract = "The population of transgender patients seeking gender confirmation surgery for gender dysphoria is increasing in the United States. Facial gender confirmation surgery (FGCS) is one of the treatment modalities patients require and is often a combination of soft tissue and cranio-maxilla-facial procedures. Despite evidence of the efficacy of FGCS, there remains some extant controversies to address, such as reimbursement for these procedures, categorization of aesthetic versus functional surgery, and evaluation of outcomes. This review provides a discussion of these topics, as well as the historical and psychosocial issues specific to transgender patients that surgeons should know when providing FGCS. We provide practice pearls for providing affirming transgender healthcare, illustrative patient clinical vignettes, and a discussion of the Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health to help guide surgeons who are interested in providing FGCS to transgender patients.",
keywords = "Facial feminization, Facial surgery, Gender dysphoria, Transgender",
author = "Nick Esmonde and Alireza Najafian and Amy Penkin and Jens Berli",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1097/SCS.0000000000005499",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "30",
pages = "1387--1392",
journal = "Journal of Craniofacial Surgery",
issn = "1049-2275",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The role of facial gender confirmation surgery in the treatment of gender dysphoria

AU - Esmonde, Nick

AU - Najafian, Alireza

AU - Penkin, Amy

AU - Berli, Jens

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - The population of transgender patients seeking gender confirmation surgery for gender dysphoria is increasing in the United States. Facial gender confirmation surgery (FGCS) is one of the treatment modalities patients require and is often a combination of soft tissue and cranio-maxilla-facial procedures. Despite evidence of the efficacy of FGCS, there remains some extant controversies to address, such as reimbursement for these procedures, categorization of aesthetic versus functional surgery, and evaluation of outcomes. This review provides a discussion of these topics, as well as the historical and psychosocial issues specific to transgender patients that surgeons should know when providing FGCS. We provide practice pearls for providing affirming transgender healthcare, illustrative patient clinical vignettes, and a discussion of the Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health to help guide surgeons who are interested in providing FGCS to transgender patients.

AB - The population of transgender patients seeking gender confirmation surgery for gender dysphoria is increasing in the United States. Facial gender confirmation surgery (FGCS) is one of the treatment modalities patients require and is often a combination of soft tissue and cranio-maxilla-facial procedures. Despite evidence of the efficacy of FGCS, there remains some extant controversies to address, such as reimbursement for these procedures, categorization of aesthetic versus functional surgery, and evaluation of outcomes. This review provides a discussion of these topics, as well as the historical and psychosocial issues specific to transgender patients that surgeons should know when providing FGCS. We provide practice pearls for providing affirming transgender healthcare, illustrative patient clinical vignettes, and a discussion of the Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health to help guide surgeons who are interested in providing FGCS to transgender patients.

KW - Facial feminization

KW - Facial surgery

KW - Gender dysphoria

KW - Transgender

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85069884714&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85069884714&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005499

DO - 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005499

M3 - Article

VL - 30

SP - 1387

EP - 1392

JO - Journal of Craniofacial Surgery

JF - Journal of Craniofacial Surgery

SN - 1049-2275

IS - 5

ER -