The rodent liver undergoes weaning-induced involution and supports breast cancer metastasis

Erica T. Goddard, Ryan C. Hill, Travis Nemkov, Angelo D’Alessandro, Kirk C. Hansen, Ori Maller, Solange Mongoue-Tchokote, Motomi (Tomi) Mori, Ann H. Partridge, Virginia F. Borges, Pepper Schedin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Scopus citations


Patients with postpartum breast cancer are at increased risk for metastasis compared with age-matched nulliparous or pregnant patients. Here, we address whether circulating tumor cells have a metastatic advantage in the postpartum host and find the postlactation rodent liver preferentially supports metastasis. Upon weaning, we observed liver weight loss, hepatocyte apoptosis, extracellular matrix remodeling including deposition of collagen and tenascin-C, and myeloid cell influx, data consistent with weaning-induced liver involution and establishment of a prometastatic microenvironment. Using intracardiac and intraportal metastasis models, we observed increased liver metastasis in post-weaning BALB/c mice compared with nulliparous controls. Human relevance is suggested by a ∼3-fold increase in liver metastasis in patients with postpartum breast cancer (n = 564) and by liver-specific tropism (n = 117). In sum, our data reveal a previously unknown biology of the rodent liver, weaning-induced liver involution, which may provide insight into the increased liver metastasis and poor prognosis of women diagnosed with postpartum breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: We find that patients with postpartum breast cancer are at elevated risk for liver metastasis. We identify a previously unrecognized biology, namely weaning-induced liver involution, that establishes a prometastatic microenvironment, and which may account in part for the poor prognosis of patients with postpartum breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)177-187
Number of pages11
JournalCancer Discovery
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2017


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

Cite this

Goddard, E. T., Hill, R. C., Nemkov, T., D’Alessandro, A., Hansen, K. C., Maller, O., ... Schedin, P. (2017). The rodent liver undergoes weaning-induced involution and supports breast cancer metastasis. Cancer Discovery, 7(2), 177-187.