The procoagulant molecule plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is associated with injury severity and shock in patients with and without traumatic brain injury

Mary Condron, Susan Rowell, Elizabeth Dewey, Taylor Anderson, Lelani Lealiiee, David Farrell, Holly Hinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND Traumatic injury is associated with an increased risk of coagulopathy and venous thrombosis. plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a procoagulant molecule that inhibits tPA/uPA, thrombomodulin, and activated protein C. We hypothesized that elevated PAI-1 levels would be associated with increased Injury Severity Score (ISS) in injured patients with and without traumatic brain injury and that PAI-1 levels would vary with injury type. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed demographic, ISS, and hemodynamic data from a prospectively collected database. Patients with traumatic injury requiring intensive care unit admission (n = 268) were classified as multiple injuries, isolated body, or isolated head based on Abbreviated Injury Severity score. Admission PAI-1 levels were quantified using a Luminex analyte platform. Univariate tests for association informed the construction of a multivariate model of the relationship between PAI-1 and ISS. RESULTS Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 positively associated with ISS (p < 0.0001) and was highest in patients with ISS greater than 35 (p < 0.0001). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was significantly different between multiple injuries, isolated body, and isolated head patients (p < 0.0001). On univariate analysis, age (p = 0.0011), hypotension (p = 0.0076), and alcohol intoxication (p = 0.0024) were all positively associated with PAI-1 level. Admission international normalized ratio was not associated with PAI-1 level (p = 0.638). After adjusting for age, sex, hypotension, and alcohol intoxication, higher PAI-1 levels were associated with higher ISS (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION Elevated PAI-1 at admission is associated with higher ISS. This association is more pronounced in patients with hypotension. These findings suggest that PAI-1 levels may reflect the burden of endothelial damage and platelet activation after injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Prognostic, level III.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)888-893
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Volume85
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2018

Keywords

  • PAI-1
  • coagulopathy
  • injury severity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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