The history and future of cross-cultural psychiatric services

H. Steven Moffic, J. David Kinzie

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    22 Scopus citations


    With cultural issues prominent in the United States today and with on- going rapid changes in health care management and delivery, this paper discusses the shift from a generic-type psychiatry (i.e., assuming that humans the world over are no different, and will react to given stressors in life in the same manner) to one recognizing that cultural beliefs, mores, peer pressure, family expectations, and other ingredients operate in unique combinations in various cultures and ethnic groups. These social and cultural factors can and will impact treatment modalities and outcomes. Literature reviewed herein illustrates the progressive stages of awareness and incorporation of cultural differences and the many ways they impact treatment. Unfortunately, the rise in managed, rationed health care threatens the future of this progression. It is essential that culturally-based managed care programs be developed and funded to ensure the availability of cost- effective treatment, through an integrated system of services, to patients of all cultural and economic backgrounds.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)581-592
    Number of pages12
    JournalCommunity mental health journal
    Issue number6
    StatePublished - Dec 1996

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Health(social science)
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
    • Psychiatry and Mental health


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