The extrapancreatic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and related peptides

Rania Abu-Hamdah, Atoosa Rabiee, Graydon S. Meneilly, Richard P. Shannon, Dana Andersen, Dariush Elahi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

157 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) 7-36 amide, an insulinotropic hormone released from the intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion, has been extensively reviewed with respect to β-cell function. However GLP-1 receptors are abundant in many other tissues. Thus, the function of GLP-1 is not limited to the islet cells, and it has regulatory actions on many other organs. Evidence Acquisition: A review of published, peer-reviewed medical literature (1987 to September 2008) on the extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 was performed. Evidence Synthesis: The extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 include inhibition of gastric emptying and gastric acid secretion, thereby fulfilling the definition of GLP-1 as an enterogastrone. Other important extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 include a regulatory role in hepatic glucose production, the inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion, cardioprotective and cardiotropic effects, the regulation of appetite and satiety, and stimulation of afferent sensory nerves. The primary metabolite of GLP-1, GLP-1 (9-36) amide, or GLP-1m, is the truncated product of degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4. GLP-1m has insulinomimetic effects on hepatic glucose production and cardiac function. Exendin-4 present in the salivary gland of the reptile, Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), is a high-affinity agonist for the mammalian GLP-1 receptor. It is resistant to degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and therefore has a prolonged half-life. Conclusion: GLP-1 and its metabolite have important extrapancreatic effects particularly with regard to the cardiovascular system and insulinomimetic effects with respect to glucose homeostasis. These effects may be particularly important in the obese state. GLP-1, GLP-1m, and exendin-4 therefore have potential therapeutic roles because of their diffuse extrapancreatic actions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1843-1852
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume94
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Peptides
Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4
Metabolites
Glucose
Enteroendocrine Cells
Appetite Regulation
Cardiovascular system
Degradation
Peer Review
Reptiles
Lizards
Gastric Emptying
Liver
Gastric Acid
Cardiovascular System
Salivary Glands
Islets of Langerhans
Nutrients
Half-Life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

The extrapancreatic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and related peptides. / Abu-Hamdah, Rania; Rabiee, Atoosa; Meneilly, Graydon S.; Shannon, Richard P.; Andersen, Dana; Elahi, Dariush.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 94, No. 6, 06.2009, p. 1843-1852.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abu-Hamdah, Rania ; Rabiee, Atoosa ; Meneilly, Graydon S. ; Shannon, Richard P. ; Andersen, Dana ; Elahi, Dariush. / The extrapancreatic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and related peptides. In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2009 ; Vol. 94, No. 6. pp. 1843-1852.
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AB - Context: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) 7-36 amide, an insulinotropic hormone released from the intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion, has been extensively reviewed with respect to β-cell function. However GLP-1 receptors are abundant in many other tissues. Thus, the function of GLP-1 is not limited to the islet cells, and it has regulatory actions on many other organs. Evidence Acquisition: A review of published, peer-reviewed medical literature (1987 to September 2008) on the extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 was performed. Evidence Synthesis: The extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 include inhibition of gastric emptying and gastric acid secretion, thereby fulfilling the definition of GLP-1 as an enterogastrone. Other important extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 include a regulatory role in hepatic glucose production, the inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion, cardioprotective and cardiotropic effects, the regulation of appetite and satiety, and stimulation of afferent sensory nerves. The primary metabolite of GLP-1, GLP-1 (9-36) amide, or GLP-1m, is the truncated product of degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4. GLP-1m has insulinomimetic effects on hepatic glucose production and cardiac function. Exendin-4 present in the salivary gland of the reptile, Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), is a high-affinity agonist for the mammalian GLP-1 receptor. It is resistant to degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and therefore has a prolonged half-life. Conclusion: GLP-1 and its metabolite have important extrapancreatic effects particularly with regard to the cardiovascular system and insulinomimetic effects with respect to glucose homeostasis. These effects may be particularly important in the obese state. GLP-1, GLP-1m, and exendin-4 therefore have potential therapeutic roles because of their diffuse extrapancreatic actions.

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