BACKGROUND Hemorrhagic shock (HS) and trauma can result in an endotheliopathy of trauma, characterized by endothelial compromise, inflammation, and aberrant coagulation. Kcentra, a prothrombin concentrate, has been demonstrated to mitigate pulmonary vascular leak in a murine model of HS. We investigated the effects of Kcentra in a rat model of HS, to achieve physiologic endpoints of relevance. METHODS Rats subjected to a grade intravenous splenic injury and controlled hemorrhage for 60 minutes were resuscitated with shed volumes of (1) Lactated Ringer's (LR) solution, (2) LR + 20 IU/kg Kcentra, (3) LR + 50 IU/kg Kcentra, (4) rat fresh frozen plasma (RFFP), or (5) human fresh frozen plasma (HFFP). Blood was harvested for monitoring metabolic and coagulation function. Rat lungs were evaluated for lung injury and permeability. RESULTS Animals resuscitated with LR displayed a significant increase in pulmonary vascular permeability (sham, 407.9 ± 122.4; shock + LR, 2040 ± 1462). Resuscitation with RFFP (606.5 ± 169.3) reduced leak; however, treatment with Kcentra (HS + Kcentra [20 IU/kg]: 1792 ± 903.4, HS + Kcentra [50 IU/kg]: 1876 ± 1103), and HFFP (1450 ± 533.2) had no significant effect on permeability. Kcentra modestly altered clotting parameters. Metabolic measures, such as lactate, pH, and base deficit, were restored to baseline levels by both RFFP and HFFP, but not Kcentra or LR. CONCLUSION Kcentra did not alter pulmonary vascular permeability, but modestly increased clotting potential in injured rats. This suggests that there may be a xenogenic reaction of human products in rats and that the effects of Kcentra on vascular stability may be distinct from its ability to modulate clotting. Our data indicate that the species chosen and utilized for in vivo preclinical testing of human derived blood products is of critical importance in determining their efficacy in animal models and is the primary impetus to communicate these results.
- Blood products
- animal model development
- endothelial permeability
- four factor prothombin complexes
- hemorrhagic shock
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine