Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in children worldwide. Middle-income nations are currently experiencing epidemic levels of ROP, because greater access to neonatal intensive care units has improved survival rates of premature infants, but without sophisticated oxygen regulation. The epidemiology, screening infrastructure, treatment options, and challenges that these countries face are often tied to unique local socioeconomic, cultural, geopolitical, and medical factors. We present an overview and narratives of the current state of ROP in eight countries that are or soon will be experiencing ROP epidemics-India, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Phillipines, Romania, Thailand, and Venezuela-with a view to fostering both an understanding of the differences in the ROP landscape in various settings and an interest in the further development of ROP screening and treatment services tailored to local requirements.
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