Purpose: Comorbid medical conditions define a subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with poor outcomes. However, which comorbidities are most predictive remains understudied. Experimental Design: We conducted a retrospective analysis from 10 academic centers to ascertain the relative importance of comorbidities assessed by the cumulative illness rating scale (CIRS). The influence of specific comorbidities on event-free survival (EFS) was assessed in this derivation dataset using random survival forests to construct a CLL-specific comorbidity index (CLL-CI). Cox models were then fit to this dataset and to a single-center, independent validation dataset. Results: The derivation and validation sets comprised 570 patients (59% receiving Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, BTKi) and 167 patients (50% receiving BTKi), respectively. Of the 14 CIRS organ systems, three had a strong and stable influence on EFS: any vascular, moderate/severe endocrine, moderate/severe upper gastrointestinal comorbidity. These were combined to create the CLLCI score, which was categorized into 3 risk groups. In the derivation dataset, the median EFS values were 58, 33, and 20 months in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, correspondingly. Two-year overall survival (OS) rates were 96%, 91%, and 82%. In the validation dataset, median EFS values were 81, 40, and 23 months (twoyear OS rates 97%/92%/88%), correspondingly. Adjusting for prognostic factors, CLL-CI was significantly associated with EFS in patients treated with either chemo-immunotherapy or with BTKi in each of our 2 datasets. Conclusions: The CLL-CI is a simplified, CLL-specific comorbidity index that can be easily applied in clinical practice and correlates with survival in CLL.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research