We report the presence of a progesterone receptor (PR) in the brain of the female amphibian Rana esculenta and changes in the levels of this PR during the gonadal recovery phase in relation to different circulating steroid levels and steroid treatment. The highest level of the PR in the nuclear brain extract corresponded to a low level of plasma progesterone and occurred when vitellogenin synthesis was at a minimum. The lowest level was found during follicular growth, concomitant with increased plasma 17β-estradiol and progesterone levels. The PR levels were significantly higher in ovariectomized female R. esculenta than in intact and sham-operated female frogs. Treatment with 17β-estradiol and progesterone downregulated the frog brain PR, indicating that a possible progesterone-receptor interaction is involved in the modulation of vitellogenin.