The Adverse Effect of Weight Stigma on the Well-Being of Medical Students with Overweight or Obesity: Findings from a National Survey

Sean M. Phelan, Diana J. Burgess, Rebecca Puhl, Liselotte N. Dyrbye, John F. Dovidio, Mark Yeazel, Jennifer L. Ridgeway, David Nelson, Sylvia Perry, Julia M. Przedworski, Sara E. Burke, Rachel R. Hardeman, Michelle van Ryn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The stigma of obesity is a common and overt social bias. Negative attitudes and derogatory humor about overweight/obese individuals are commonplace among health care providers and medical students. As such, medical school may be particularly threatening for students who are overweight or obese. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to assess the frequency that obese/overweight students report being stigmatized, the degree to which stigma is internalized, and the impact of these factors on their well-being. DESIGN: We performed cross-sectional analysis of data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study (CHANGES) survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4,687 first-year medical students (1,146 overweight/obese) from a stratified random sample of 49 medical schools participated in the study. MAIN MEASURES: Implicit and explicit self-stigma were measured with the Implicit Association Test and Anti-Fat Attitudes Questionnaire. Overall health, anxiety, depression, fatigue, self-esteem, sense of mastery, social support, loneliness, and use of alcohol/drugs to cope with stress were measured using previously validated scales. KEY RESULTS: Among obese and overweight students, perceived stigma was associated with each measured component of well-being, including anxiety (beta coefficient [b] = 0.18; standard error [SE] = 0.03; p < 0.001) and depression (b = 0.20; SE = 0.03; p < 0.001). Among the subscales of the explicit self-stigma measure, dislike of obese people was associated with several factors, including depression (b = 0.07; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001), a lower sense of mastery (b = −0.10; SE = 0.02; p < 0.001), and greater likelihood of using drugs or alcohol to cope with stress (b = 0.05; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001). Fear of becoming fat was associated with each measured component of well-being, including lower body esteem (b = −0.25; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001) and less social support (b = −0.06; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001). Implicit self-stigma was not consistently associated with well-being factors. Compared to normal-weight/underweight peers, overweight/obese medical students had worse overall health (b = −0.33; SE = 0.03; p < 0.001) and body esteem (b = −0.70; SE = 0.02; p < 0.001), and overweight/obese female students reported less social support (b = −0.12; SE = 0.03; p < 0.001) and more loneliness (b = 0.22; SE = 0.04; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived and internalized weight stigma may contribute to worse well-being among overweight/obese medical students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1251-1258
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of General Internal Medicine
Volume30
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 19 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Medical Students
Obesity
Weights and Measures
Social Support
Students
Loneliness
Depression
Medical Schools
Anxiety
Fats
Alcohols
Wit and Humor
Surveys and Questionnaires
Thinness
Health
Self Concept
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Health Personnel
Habits
Fear

Keywords

  • Body weight
  • Medical students
  • Obesity
  • Psychological stress
  • Stigmatization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

The Adverse Effect of Weight Stigma on the Well-Being of Medical Students with Overweight or Obesity : Findings from a National Survey. / Phelan, Sean M.; Burgess, Diana J.; Puhl, Rebecca; Dyrbye, Liselotte N.; Dovidio, John F.; Yeazel, Mark; Ridgeway, Jennifer L.; Nelson, David; Perry, Sylvia; Przedworski, Julia M.; Burke, Sara E.; Hardeman, Rachel R.; van Ryn, Michelle.

In: Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 30, No. 9, 19.09.2015, p. 1251-1258.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Phelan, SM, Burgess, DJ, Puhl, R, Dyrbye, LN, Dovidio, JF, Yeazel, M, Ridgeway, JL, Nelson, D, Perry, S, Przedworski, JM, Burke, SE, Hardeman, RR & van Ryn, M 2015, 'The Adverse Effect of Weight Stigma on the Well-Being of Medical Students with Overweight or Obesity: Findings from a National Survey', Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1251-1258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-015-3266-x
Phelan, Sean M. ; Burgess, Diana J. ; Puhl, Rebecca ; Dyrbye, Liselotte N. ; Dovidio, John F. ; Yeazel, Mark ; Ridgeway, Jennifer L. ; Nelson, David ; Perry, Sylvia ; Przedworski, Julia M. ; Burke, Sara E. ; Hardeman, Rachel R. ; van Ryn, Michelle. / The Adverse Effect of Weight Stigma on the Well-Being of Medical Students with Overweight or Obesity : Findings from a National Survey. In: Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2015 ; Vol. 30, No. 9. pp. 1251-1258.
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The Adverse Effect of Weight Stigma on the Well-Being of Medical Students with Overweight or Obesity

T2 - Findings from a National Survey

AU - Phelan, Sean M.

AU - Burgess, Diana J.

AU - Puhl, Rebecca

AU - Dyrbye, Liselotte N.

AU - Dovidio, John F.

AU - Yeazel, Mark

AU - Ridgeway, Jennifer L.

AU - Nelson, David

AU - Perry, Sylvia

AU - Przedworski, Julia M.

AU - Burke, Sara E.

AU - Hardeman, Rachel R.

AU - van Ryn, Michelle

PY - 2015/9/19

Y1 - 2015/9/19

N2 - BACKGROUND: The stigma of obesity is a common and overt social bias. Negative attitudes and derogatory humor about overweight/obese individuals are commonplace among health care providers and medical students. As such, medical school may be particularly threatening for students who are overweight or obese. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to assess the frequency that obese/overweight students report being stigmatized, the degree to which stigma is internalized, and the impact of these factors on their well-being. DESIGN: We performed cross-sectional analysis of data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study (CHANGES) survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4,687 first-year medical students (1,146 overweight/obese) from a stratified random sample of 49 medical schools participated in the study. MAIN MEASURES: Implicit and explicit self-stigma were measured with the Implicit Association Test and Anti-Fat Attitudes Questionnaire. Overall health, anxiety, depression, fatigue, self-esteem, sense of mastery, social support, loneliness, and use of alcohol/drugs to cope with stress were measured using previously validated scales. KEY RESULTS: Among obese and overweight students, perceived stigma was associated with each measured component of well-being, including anxiety (beta coefficient [b] = 0.18; standard error [SE] = 0.03; p < 0.001) and depression (b = 0.20; SE = 0.03; p < 0.001). Among the subscales of the explicit self-stigma measure, dislike of obese people was associated with several factors, including depression (b = 0.07; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001), a lower sense of mastery (b = −0.10; SE = 0.02; p < 0.001), and greater likelihood of using drugs or alcohol to cope with stress (b = 0.05; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001). Fear of becoming fat was associated with each measured component of well-being, including lower body esteem (b = −0.25; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001) and less social support (b = −0.06; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001). Implicit self-stigma was not consistently associated with well-being factors. Compared to normal-weight/underweight peers, overweight/obese medical students had worse overall health (b = −0.33; SE = 0.03; p < 0.001) and body esteem (b = −0.70; SE = 0.02; p < 0.001), and overweight/obese female students reported less social support (b = −0.12; SE = 0.03; p < 0.001) and more loneliness (b = 0.22; SE = 0.04; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived and internalized weight stigma may contribute to worse well-being among overweight/obese medical students.

AB - BACKGROUND: The stigma of obesity is a common and overt social bias. Negative attitudes and derogatory humor about overweight/obese individuals are commonplace among health care providers and medical students. As such, medical school may be particularly threatening for students who are overweight or obese. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to assess the frequency that obese/overweight students report being stigmatized, the degree to which stigma is internalized, and the impact of these factors on their well-being. DESIGN: We performed cross-sectional analysis of data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study (CHANGES) survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4,687 first-year medical students (1,146 overweight/obese) from a stratified random sample of 49 medical schools participated in the study. MAIN MEASURES: Implicit and explicit self-stigma were measured with the Implicit Association Test and Anti-Fat Attitudes Questionnaire. Overall health, anxiety, depression, fatigue, self-esteem, sense of mastery, social support, loneliness, and use of alcohol/drugs to cope with stress were measured using previously validated scales. KEY RESULTS: Among obese and overweight students, perceived stigma was associated with each measured component of well-being, including anxiety (beta coefficient [b] = 0.18; standard error [SE] = 0.03; p < 0.001) and depression (b = 0.20; SE = 0.03; p < 0.001). Among the subscales of the explicit self-stigma measure, dislike of obese people was associated with several factors, including depression (b = 0.07; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001), a lower sense of mastery (b = −0.10; SE = 0.02; p < 0.001), and greater likelihood of using drugs or alcohol to cope with stress (b = 0.05; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001). Fear of becoming fat was associated with each measured component of well-being, including lower body esteem (b = −0.25; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001) and less social support (b = −0.06; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001). Implicit self-stigma was not consistently associated with well-being factors. Compared to normal-weight/underweight peers, overweight/obese medical students had worse overall health (b = −0.33; SE = 0.03; p < 0.001) and body esteem (b = −0.70; SE = 0.02; p < 0.001), and overweight/obese female students reported less social support (b = −0.12; SE = 0.03; p < 0.001) and more loneliness (b = 0.22; SE = 0.04; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived and internalized weight stigma may contribute to worse well-being among overweight/obese medical students.

KW - Body weight

KW - Medical students

KW - Obesity

KW - Psychological stress

KW - Stigmatization

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