The acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease transition in a mouse model of acute cardiorenal syndrome emphasizes the role of inflammation

Katsuyuki Matsushita, Turgay Saritas, Mahaba B. Eiwaz, Nicholas McClellan, Ian Coe, Wenbin Zhu, Mohammed Z. Ferdaus, Lynn Y. Sakai, James A. McCormick, Michael P. Hutchens

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Abstract

Acute cardiorenal syndrome is a common complication of acute cardiovascular disease. Studies of acute kidney injury (AKI) to chronic kidney disease (CKD) transition, including patients suffering acute cardiovascular disease, report high rates of CKD development. Therefore, acute cardiorenal syndrome associates with CKD, but no study has established causation. To define this we used a murine cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) model or sham procedure on male mice. CA was induced with potassium chloride while CPR consisted of chest compressions and epinephrine eight minutes later. Two weeks after AKI was induced by CA/CPR, the measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not different from sham. However, after seven weeks the mice developed CKD, recapitulating clinical observations. One day, and one, two, and seven weeks after CA/CPR, the GFR was measured, and renal tissue sections were evaluated for various indices of injury and inflammation. One day after CA/CPR, acute cardiorenal syndrome was indicated by a significant reduction of the mean GFR (649 in sham, vs. 25 μL/min/100g in CA/CPR animals), KIM-1 positive tubules, and acute tubular necrosis. Renal inflammation developed, with F4/80 positive and CD3-positive cells infiltrating the kidney one day and one week after CA/CPR, respectively. Although there was functional recovery with normalization of GFR two weeks after CA/CPR, deposition of tubulointerstitial matrix proteins α-smooth muscle actin and fibrillin-1 progressed, along with a significantly reduced mean GFR (623 in sham vs. 409 μL/min/100g in CA/CPR animals), proteinuria, increased tissue transforming growth factor-β, and fibrosis establishing the development of CKD seven weeks after CA/CPR. Thus, murine CA/CPR, a model of acute cardiorenal syndrome, causes an AKI-CKD transition likely due to prolonged renal inflammation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalKidney International
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

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Keywords

  • acute kidney injury
  • cardiac arrest
  • cardiorenal
  • chronic kidney disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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