The actions of a range of formamidines have been investigated biochemically and physiologically on octopamine receptors in the locust Schistocerca gregaria. All the formamidines tested [chlordimeform (CDM), demethylchlordimeform (DCDM), amitraz, and UK 16353] mimicked the action of octopamine by (1) increasing the amplitude and relaxation rate of slow motorneurone tension in the extensor-tibiae muscle of the hind leg and (2) changing the levels of cyclic AMP in this muscle. UK 16353 was most effective in changing these parameters, followed by DCDM then amitraz and CDM. The formamidine-induced increase in cyclic AMP levels was reduced or completely blocked by phentolamine, an antagonist of insect octopamine receptors. The time course for the increase in cyclic AMP was followed for 30 min by incubating muscles in 10-5 M DCDM. The increase was potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. In the presence of this compound, the response peaked within 5 min, before declining to a lower plateau after 12 min. The response to 10-5 M CDM was lower and the maximum increase occurred after 7 min, then rapidly declined. Both formamidines increased cyclic AMP in a dose-dependent way with a threshold of between 5 × 10-7 and 10-8 M. The results are discused in terms of the relationship between the biochemical and physiological actions of the formamidines in this preparation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis