Tear film changes associated with normal aging

William Mathers, James A. Lane, M. Bridget Zimmerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

168 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We examined a group of normal subjects to evaluate the tear film function by measuring reflex tear capacity using the Schirmer test without anesthetic, steady state tear flow using fluorophotometry, meibomian gland function based on gland drop-out, expressible lipid volume and viscosity, tear loss from evaporation, and tear osmolarity. We found the average tear flow to be 0.19±0.19 μl/min, lower than previously measured. The average tear volume was also correspondingly less, 2.74±2.0 μl. We found there was a decline associated with advancing age for all parameters except the decay constant and lipid volume. The highest correlations with aging were tear volume (- 0.64), Schirmer test (-0.63), and tear osmolarity (0.59). Our results indicate that there is a decline in tear film function throughout life and that tear flow is considerably less than previously estimated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-234
Number of pages6
JournalCornea
Volume15
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Tears
Osmolar Concentration
Fluorophotometry
Meibomian Glands
Lipids
Viscosity
Reflex
Anesthetics

Keywords

  • Dry eye
  • Evaporation
  • Schirmer test
  • Tear film

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Tear film changes associated with normal aging. / Mathers, William; Lane, James A.; Bridget Zimmerman, M.

In: Cornea, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1996, p. 229-234.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mathers, W, Lane, JA & Bridget Zimmerman, M 1996, 'Tear film changes associated with normal aging', Cornea, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 229-234. https://doi.org/10.1097/00003226-199605000-00001
Mathers, William ; Lane, James A. ; Bridget Zimmerman, M. / Tear film changes associated with normal aging. In: Cornea. 1996 ; Vol. 15, No. 3. pp. 229-234.
@article{a66a4f43e673475aafc35652b8db9e38,
title = "Tear film changes associated with normal aging",
abstract = "We examined a group of normal subjects to evaluate the tear film function by measuring reflex tear capacity using the Schirmer test without anesthetic, steady state tear flow using fluorophotometry, meibomian gland function based on gland drop-out, expressible lipid volume and viscosity, tear loss from evaporation, and tear osmolarity. We found the average tear flow to be 0.19±0.19 μl/min, lower than previously measured. The average tear volume was also correspondingly less, 2.74±2.0 μl. We found there was a decline associated with advancing age for all parameters except the decay constant and lipid volume. The highest correlations with aging were tear volume (- 0.64), Schirmer test (-0.63), and tear osmolarity (0.59). Our results indicate that there is a decline in tear film function throughout life and that tear flow is considerably less than previously estimated.",
keywords = "Dry eye, Evaporation, Schirmer test, Tear film",
author = "William Mathers and Lane, {James A.} and {Bridget Zimmerman}, M.",
year = "1996",
doi = "10.1097/00003226-199605000-00001",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "15",
pages = "229--234",
journal = "Cornea",
issn = "0277-3740",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tear film changes associated with normal aging

AU - Mathers, William

AU - Lane, James A.

AU - Bridget Zimmerman, M.

PY - 1996

Y1 - 1996

N2 - We examined a group of normal subjects to evaluate the tear film function by measuring reflex tear capacity using the Schirmer test without anesthetic, steady state tear flow using fluorophotometry, meibomian gland function based on gland drop-out, expressible lipid volume and viscosity, tear loss from evaporation, and tear osmolarity. We found the average tear flow to be 0.19±0.19 μl/min, lower than previously measured. The average tear volume was also correspondingly less, 2.74±2.0 μl. We found there was a decline associated with advancing age for all parameters except the decay constant and lipid volume. The highest correlations with aging were tear volume (- 0.64), Schirmer test (-0.63), and tear osmolarity (0.59). Our results indicate that there is a decline in tear film function throughout life and that tear flow is considerably less than previously estimated.

AB - We examined a group of normal subjects to evaluate the tear film function by measuring reflex tear capacity using the Schirmer test without anesthetic, steady state tear flow using fluorophotometry, meibomian gland function based on gland drop-out, expressible lipid volume and viscosity, tear loss from evaporation, and tear osmolarity. We found the average tear flow to be 0.19±0.19 μl/min, lower than previously measured. The average tear volume was also correspondingly less, 2.74±2.0 μl. We found there was a decline associated with advancing age for all parameters except the decay constant and lipid volume. The highest correlations with aging were tear volume (- 0.64), Schirmer test (-0.63), and tear osmolarity (0.59). Our results indicate that there is a decline in tear film function throughout life and that tear flow is considerably less than previously estimated.

KW - Dry eye

KW - Evaporation

KW - Schirmer test

KW - Tear film

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029886437&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029886437&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/00003226-199605000-00001

DO - 10.1097/00003226-199605000-00001

M3 - Article

C2 - 8713923

AN - SCOPUS:0029886437

VL - 15

SP - 229

EP - 234

JO - Cornea

JF - Cornea

SN - 0277-3740

IS - 3

ER -