Targeting the HIV-1 spike and coreceptor with Bi- and trispecific antibodies for single-component broad inhibition of entry

Salar N. Khan, Devin Sok, Karen Tran, Arlette Movsesyan, Viktoriya Dubrovskaya, Dennis R. Burton, Richard T. Wyatt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Protection against acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may not require a vaccine in the conventional sense, because broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) alone prevent HIV infection in relevant animal challenge models. Additionally, bNAbs as therapeutics can effectively suppress HIV replication in infected humans and in animal models. Combinations of bNAbs are generally even more effective, and bNAb-derived multivalent antibody-like molecules also inhibit HIV replication both in vitro and in vivo. To expand the available array of multispecific HIV inhibitors, we designed single-component molecules that incorporate two (bispecific) or three (trispecific) bNAbs that recognize HIV Env exclusively, a bispecific CrossMAb targeting two epitopes on the major HIV coreceptor, CCR5, and bi- and trispecifics that cross-target both Env and CCR5. These newly designed molecules displayed exceptional breadth, neutralizing 98 to 100% of a 109-virus panel, as well as additivity and potency compared to those of the individual parental control IgGs. The bispecific molecules, designed as tandem single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) (10E8fv-N6fv and m36.4-PRO 140fv), displayed median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50s) of 0.0685 and 0.0131 μg/ml, respectively. A trispecific containing 10E8-PGT121-PGDM1400 Env-specific binding sites was equally potent (median IC50 of 0.0135 μg/ml), while a trispecific molecule targeting Env and CCR5 simultaneously (10E8Fab-PGDM1400fv-PRO 140fv) demonstrated even greater potency, with a median IC50 of 0.007 μg/ml. By design, some of these molecules lacked Fc-mediated effector function; therefore, we also constructed a trispecific prototype possessing reconstituted CH2-CH3 domains to restore Fc receptor binding capacity. The molecules developed here, along with those described previously, possess promise as prophylactic and therapeutic agents against HIV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00384
JournalJournal of virology
Volume92
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Anti-CCR5
  • Bispecific antibody
  • CrossMAb
  • HIV envelope
  • HIV-1
  • Trispecific antibody

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

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