Sympathetic cardiac hyperinnervation and atrial autonomic imbalance in diet-induced obesity promote cardiac arrhythmias

Belinda H. McCully, Wohaib Hasan, Cole T. Streiff, Jennifer C. Houle, William R. Woodward, George D. Giraud, Virginia L. Brooks, Beth A. Habecker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Obesity increases the risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the mechanisms are unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that obesity-induced cardiac sympathetic outgrowth and hyperinnervation promotes the development of arrhythmic events. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), fed a high-fat diet (33% kcal/fat), diverged into obesity-resistant (OR) and obesity-prone (OP) groups and were compared with rats fed normal chow (13% kcal/fat; CON). In vitro experiments showed that both OR and OP rats exhibited hyperinnervation of the heart and high sympathetic outgrowth compared with CON rats, even though OR rats are not obese. Despite the hyperinnervation and outgrowth, we showed that, in vivo, OR rats were less susceptible to arrhythmic events after an intravenous epinephrine challenge compared with OP rats. On examining total and stimulus-evoked neurotransmitter levels in an ex vivo system, we demonstrate that atrial acetylcholine content and release were attenuated in OP compared with OR and CON groups. OP rats also expressed elevated atrial norepinephrine content, while norepinephrine release was suppressed. These findings suggest that the consumption of a high-fat diet, even in the absence of overt obesity, stimulates sympathetic outgrowth and hyperinnervation of the heart. However, normalized cardiac parasympathetic nervous system control may protect the heart from arrhythmic events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H1530-H1537
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume305
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 15 2013

Keywords

  • Arrhythmia
  • Autonomic imbalance
  • Neurite outgrowth
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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