Survival outcomes and practice trends for off-label use of adjuvant targeted therapy in high-risk locoregional renal cell carcinoma

Nicholas H. Chakiryan, Ann Martinez Acevedo, Mark A. Garzotto, Yiyi Chen, Jen Jane Liu, Sudhir Isharwal, Christopher L. Amling, Ryan P. Kopp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Importance: The appropriate use of adjuvant targeted therapy (TT) for high-risk locoregional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after nephrectomy is currently unclear due to mixed results from the relevant randomized controlled trials. National-level survival outcomes and practice trends for the use of adjuvant TT in the United States have not been reported. Objective: To compare overall survival for patients who did and did not receive adjuvant TT after nephrectomy for high-risk locoregional RCC. Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study reviewed the National Cancer Database from 2006 to 2015. Patients with nonmetastatic clear cell RCC who underwent nephrectomy with either stage pT3a or greater or pN+ were included. Main outcomes and measures: Adjuvant TT was defined as receipt of TT within 3 months of nephrectomy. The primary end point was overall survival from initial diagnosis to date of death or censored at last follow-up. Baseline characteristics were described, and a multivariable analysis identified associations for receipt of adjuvant TT. Nearest-neighbor propensity matching was performed to create similar groups for comparison. A survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test. Results: The final study population included 41,127 patients. Two thousand seventy-one patients (5.04%) received off-label adjuvant TT. Younger age, white race, private insurance, positive margins, pT4, and pN+ were associated with receipt of adjuvant TT. After nearest-neighbor propensity matching for clinically and statistically relevant covariates, 1,604 patients remained in the matched cohort, with statistically nonsignificant differences between the groups for all baseline characteristics. Median overall survival was 52 months for patients in the Adjuvant TT group versus 79 months for those who did not receive adjuvant TT (P < 0.001). Decreased overall survival for patients receiving adjuvant therapy was also seen in pathologic subgroups with and without lymph node involvement. Conclusions: The propensity matched survival analysis revealed significantly decreased overall survival in patients who received off-label adjuvant TT for high-risk locoregional RCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)604.e1-604.e7
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2020


  • Kidney cancer
  • Nephrectomy
  • Tyrosine kinase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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