Surgical treatment of infective mitral valve endocarditis: Predictors of early and late outcome

Christos Alexiou, Stephen M. Langley, Helena Stafford, Marcus P. Haw, Steven A. Livesey, James L. Monro

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    Abstract

    Background and aims of the study: The study aim was to review our experience in surgical treatment of infective mitral valve endocarditis, and to identify predictors of early and late outcome. Methods: Ninety-one consecutive patients (52 males, 39 females, mean age 55.6 years) underwent surgery between 1973 and 1997 for endocarditis of isolated mitral (n = 65, 71%), mitral and aortic (n = 25, 28%) and mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves (n = 1, 1%). Native valve endocarditis (NVE) was present in 60 patients (66%) and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) in 31 (34%). The main indications for surgery were heart failure in 32 patients, valve dysfunction in 23, vegetations in 21, and persistent sepsis in 11. Eighty-six patients (95%) were in NYHA classes IlI-IV, and 58 (64%) had active culture-positive endocarditis at surgery. Mechanical valves were implanted in 73 patients and bioprosthetic valves in 13; valves were repaired in five patients. The impact of 46 parameters on early and late outcome was defined by means of univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Follow up was complete (mean 5.5 years; range: 0-23.1 years; total 507.3 patient-years). Results: Operative mortality rate was 11% (n = 10). Recurrent infection was recorded in five patients (6%), and reoperation was required in eight (9%). Freedom from recurrent infection and reoperation at 10 years was 89.1% and 87.8% respectively. There were 22 late deaths, 15 from cardiac causes. Actuarial survival rates for all patients at 5, 10 and 15 years were 73.0%, 62.7% and 58.7% (for hospital survivors, the corresponding rates were 81.9%, 69.7% and 66.0%). On multiple logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, the following were independent predictors: preoperative pulmonary edema (p = 0.01) for operative mortality; PVE (p = 0.02) for recurrence; younger age (p = 0.02) and PVE (p = 0.02) for reoperation; male gender (p = 0.004) and longer ITU stay for survival (if all patients were included); male gender (p = 0.01) and myocardial invasion by infection (p = 0.02) for survival (if only the hospital survivors were analyzed). Conclusion: Surgery for infective mitral valve endocarditis carries a relatively high, though acceptable, risk but provides satisfactory freedom from recurrent infection, reoperation and improved long-term survival. Analysis of these data demonstrated that the preoperative hemodynamic status was the major predictor of in-hospital outcome, PVE increased the risk for recurrent infection and reoperation, whereas male gender and myocardial invasion by the infective process critically reduced the probability of long- term survival. The type of offending pathogen, the activity of infection and the involvement of more than one valve did not appear to influence early and/or late outcome.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)327-334
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Heart Valve Disease
    Volume9
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - May 1 2000

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Alexiou, C., Langley, S. M., Stafford, H., Haw, M. P., Livesey, S. A., & Monro, J. L. (2000). Surgical treatment of infective mitral valve endocarditis: Predictors of early and late outcome. Journal of Heart Valve Disease, 9(3), 327-334.