The surgical treatment of obesity is a consideration for individuals with severe obesity or obesity related comorbid conditions who have been unsuccessful in their effort to accomplish effective weight loss. Weight loss surgery is the most effective treatment for severe medical complicated and refractory obesity. Although there is a risk of postoperative complications, perioperative mortality is rare. It significantly ameliorates numerous life-threatening medical comorbidities that occur as part of the pathophysiology of obesity. Rapid changes in surgical technology and in demand for weight loss surgery have made the field one of medicines most dynamic. This chapter reviews available surgical procedures with possible mechanisms of action through the entero-hypothalamic endocrine axis, and their risks and outcomes.
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