Objective: This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing with different polishing systems on the surface roughness and gloss of commercial composites. Methods: One hundred disk-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter ×2 mm thick) were made with Filtek P-90, Filtek Z350 XT, Opallis, and Grandio. The specimens were manually finished with #400 sandpaper and polished by a single operator using three multistep systems (Superfix, Diamond Pro, and Sof-lex), one two-step system (Polidores DFL), and one one-step system (Enhance), following the manufacturer's instructions. The average surface roughness (lm) was measured with a surface profilometer (TR 200 Surface Roughness Tester), and gloss was measured using a small-area glossmeter (Novo- Curve, Rhopoint Instrumentation, East Sussex, UK). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results: Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were identified by varying the polishing systems (p,<0.0001) and by the interaction between polishing system and composite (p,<0.0001). Pairwise comparisons revealed higher surface roughness for Grandio when polished with Sof-Lex and Filtek Z250 and Opallis when polished with Enhance. Gloss was influenced by the composites (p, <0.0001), the polishing systems (p, <0.0001), and the interaction between them (p, <0.0001). The one-step system, Enhance, produced the lowest gloss for all composites. Conclusions: Surface roughness and gloss were affected by composites and polishing systems. The inter-action between both also influenced these surface characteristics, meaning that a single polishing system will not behave similarly for all composites. The multistep systems produced higher gloss, while the one-step system produced the highest surface roughness and the lowest gloss of all.
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