Purpose: To determine the frequency of hepatobiliary infections after transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium 90 (90Y) in patients with liver malignancy and a history of biliary intervention. Materials and Methods: For this retrospective study, records of all consecutive patients with liver malignancy and history of biliary intervention treated with TARE at 14 centers between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed. Data regarding liver function,90Y dosimetry, antibiotic prophylaxis, and bowel preparation prophylaxis were collected. Primary outcome was development of hepatobiliary infection. Results: One hundred twenty-six patients (84 men, 42 women; mean age, 68.8 years) with primary (n = 39) or metastatic (n = 87) liver malignancy and history of biliary intervention underwent 180 procedures with glass (92 procedures) or resin (88 procedures) microspheres. Hepatobiliary infections (liver abscesses in nine patients, cholangitis in five patients) developed in 10 of the 126 patients (7.9%) after 11 of the 180 procedures (6.1%; nine of those procedures were performed with glass microspheres). All patients required hospitalization (median stay, 12 days; range, 2-113 days). Ten patients required percutaneous abscess drainage, three patients underwent endoscopic stent placement and stone removal, and one patient needed insertion of percutaneous biliary drains. Infections resolved in five patients, four patients died (two from infection and two from cancer progression while infection was being treated), and one patient continued to receive suppressive antibiotics. Use of glass microspheres (P = .02), previous liver resection or ablation (P = .02), and younger age (P = .003) were independently predictive of higher infection risk. Conclusion: Infectious complications such as liver abscess and cholangitis are uncommon but serious complications of transarterial radioembolization with90Y in patients with liver malignancy and a history of biliary intervention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging