Natural abundance 13 C NMR spectra of three DNA oligomers have been obtained. Most of the base resonances are well resolved from one another. A combination of two independent methods was used in making assignments: a one-dimensional spectral comparison method and a two-dimensional pro- 1H-13C ton-detected correlated experiment for the protonated carbons. There are large shielding changes (between 1.62 and -1.40 ppm) upon thermal dissociation of the duplex. The shapes of the chemical shift vs temperature curves are largely independent of sequence. The base carbon resonance frequencies are sensitive to hydrogen bonding, base stacking, sugar conformation, and changes in the glycosyl torsion angle.
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