Objectives. To review, prospectively, our experience with endoscopic Deflux injection and evaluate the volume injected, grade, endoscopic appearance after injection, and presence or absence of voiding dysfunction as predictors of success. Subureteral injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) has become an effective treatment of vesicoureteral reflux. Methods. A total of 52 patients (50 females and 2 males; 80 ureters) were treated with a single subureteral injection of Deflux. The mean patient age was 7.6 years (range 14 months to 22 years). The presence or absence of voiding dysfunction was evaluated with a preoperative questionnaire and patient history. The volume of Deflux injected in each ureter was recorded. The endoscopic appearance after injection was recorded as "volcano" or "other." Success was defined as no reflux on postoperative voiding cystourethrography. Results. The success rate by grade of reflux in individual ureters was 82%, 84%, 78%, and 73% for grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 vesicoureteral reflux, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found in the cure rate by grade (P = 0.76). The overall cure rate by ureter was 80% and by patient was 71%. New contralateral reflux developed in 12.5% of patients. No statistically significant difference was found in the cure rate with respect to the volume injected or the presence or absence of voiding dysfunction. The ureteral cure rate with volcano and alternate morphology was 87% and 53%, respectively (P = 0.004). Conclusions. Mound morphology was the only statistically significant predictor of a successful outcome, with an associated cure rate of 87%. Concomitant voiding dysfunction did not have an adverse effect on the cure rate. In our experience, no statistically significant difference was found in the cure rate for grades 1 through 4 vesicoureteral reflux after a single injection of Deflux.
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