This chapter discussed the acute and long–term management of stroke plus work–up for younger patients with strokes. The treatment of peripheral vascular disease is also discussed. Cerebrovascular disease may be caused by atherosclerosis, embolism, or unusual causes such as vasculitis. Most strokes are due to either atherosclerosis or embolism, and discussion here will focus on these causes. However, the clinician must be alert to more unusual causes of stroke in selected cases.
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